Sunday, May 17, 2020
My new patient, a sprightly five-year-old named May, is a determined kid. Just moments after our first introduction, she had bee-lined for the train-track carpet in the corner of my clinic, skidding across its surface and collapsing near the toy chest that sat against the back wall. Her mother chuckled alongside me. May furrowed her brow, digging furiously through the chest until her eyes lit up. Ã¢â¬Å"Bam!Ã¢â¬ Her tiny arm shot through the air, lifting a Transformers toy like a beacon high above her head. Sitting down, she happily arranged a battalion of trains and dinosaurs for herself, hurling pink toys away as she focused on her mission. Her mother pursed her lips. Ã¢â¬Å"See, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the problem, doctor.Ã¢â¬ Taking a deep breath, MayÃ¢â¬â¢s mother began to tell me her story. Four years ago, she and her husband had adopted May from an Ethiopian orphanage, but soon after their return, her husband passed away. She had been doing her best to raise their daughter alone , but her situation grew complicated a few months ago, when May began to affirm that she was a boy, and that she wanted to become one. Accordingly, I explain to the mother that May was potentially experiencing gender dysphoria, a condition wherein an individual persistently feels that their psychological identification as male or femaleÃ¢â¬â¢their genderÃ¢â¬â¢does not align with or is opposite to their natal sex. (Vilain, Lecture XV) Ã¢â¬Å"Left untreated, she could become seriously distressed,Ã¢â¬ I added. Flustered, her mother told me that May didShow MoreRelatedPaper1748 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDr. Younkuk Chois ECM Eyes Current Medical News Commentaries - Viewpoints from an Eight-Constitution Medicine Clinician - Ãâ¢Å"Ã¬ ËÃ¬â ¬ Ã¬ µÅ"Ã¬â" °Ãª µ Ã¬ Ë ECM Eyes Ã¬ µÅ"Ã¬â¹ Ã¬ ËÃâ¢â¢Ã«â° ´Ã¬Å ¤Ãâ¢ ´Ã¬â ¤ - 8Ã¬ ² ´Ã¬ §ËÃ¬Å¾âÃ¬Æ' Ã¬ ËÃ¬â ¬Ã¬ Ë Ã¬â¢ËÃ« ª © - Preface Around April of 2015, while I was preparing for the 50th anniversary of the introduction of eight-constitution medicine (ECM) and ECM academic seminar, I planned on making the TeacherÃ¢â¬â¢s Day event in May and ECM Day event in October, which I had previously attended with some colleagues, open to other interested fellowRead MoreI Never Considered Myself A Bad Writer1021 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesprompt and filling in the requirements for an essay and getting a good grade. It was as though in high school my writing barely scratched the surface of the topic that was assigned. I looked at the text and took it only at face value, not considering deeper motivations and meanings behind the work. In the AP English Language and Composition class I took in my senior year of high school, my teacher told us how difficult and menacing college essays would prove to be. As and Bs would be incrediblyRead MoreAnalysis Of The Article Anatomy Of The Medial Knee Essay828 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesand di ssatisfied with FoxNews.comÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal of my work. First, the article did a good job of publicizing (sensationalizing) my work by using the words discovery, discover and discovered several times throughout the article. This type of promotion (although a misrepresentation) generated a lot of attention and interest in my research, which encouraged scientific dialogue and research of the knee ALL. Moreover, this information could benefit patients, orthopedic practitioners, other researchers andRead MoreThe Benefits Of The Hippocratic Oath712 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Hippocratic Oath originated from part of a collection of writings known as the Hippocratic corpus. The Oath was approximately written around 2500 ago and a modified version is still being used by medical graduates in various countries. There has been ongoing discussion about whether the Oath is still relevant in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s times or if it should be discontinued. In my opinion, although the oath isnÃ¢â¬â¢t en tirely harmful, it has certain aspects that are detrimental to the physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s and patientÃ¢â¬â¢s wellbeingRead More13.1 Grammar Essay1318 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesknows the sewing technique called Seminole patchwork. 7. Dont throw that soda can in the trash. Recycle them! Dont throw that soda can in the trash; recycle them. 8. 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My brand new job is to write how eachRead MoreHow Technology Has Affected Me As An Individual1482 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesvery deterring aspect in my life. It has affected me as an individual, as a team member and also as an emerging health professional. However, during my participation in this course I have come to understand that it is important to make myself better, and that will resonate in other aspects of my life. My journey started when I decided to se lect this course. Of course I just picked it on a whim because the title indicated complex communication, just to try breaking out of my shell, and becoming moreRead MoreAnalysis Of `` Wild `` By Dr. Parlett1491 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessome may argue strays from the original psychoanalytic method. Interpretation is crucial in the application process of psychoanalysis. The client discloses in the session, and it is then the therapistÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility to analyze the information. Dr. Parlett emphasized the art of interpretation and how it must focus on the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s unconscious behavior. It is one thing to come up with an explanation, but to reveal behaviors that the patient was once unaware of reaches a new level interpretation. EdwardRead MoreCritical Analysis Of The Reflections On My Journey Till Mid Semester1584 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCritical Analysis of the Reflections on My Journey till Mid Semester Reclusiveness has been a very deterring aspect in my life. It has affected me as a person, as a team member and as an emerging health professional. However, during my participation in this course I have come to understand that it is important to make myself better, and this will resonate with other aspects of my life. My journey started when I decided to select this course. Of course, I just picked it on a whim because theRead MoreThe Irony in Ã¢â¬Å"Bariatric Surgery: the Unspoken TruthÃ¢â¬ Essay1074 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesit does and how the different lifestyles of the patients change drastically in order to support their new body. Escudero mentions how before reaching a decision there should be research conducted in order to determine whether the operation is right for the individual whose life is at risk. He begins with a background check of what the surgery does and then incorporates positive and negative feedback from the surgery. EscuderoÃ¢â¬â¢s intentions for writing this paper are difficult to understand. It seems
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Life consists of a series of choices, choices that makes us who we are as individuals. Many of us faced a fork in the road following our four year tenure in high school. There is a broad decision we must make on whether we want to follow a path of education, or to entire directly into the workforce. Among those who choose the path of seeking higher education, there is a more narrow decision. Whether to directly enroll into a four year institution/university or to attend a community college, two year institution, seeking to receive an associates degree or to eventually transfer to a four year institution. Many factors come into play in making the educational choice, and both paths have unique pros and cons associated with them. For many high school graduates seeking higher education, being able to live on their own and mend for themselves is a goal. Going off to college is seen as a milestone in the lives of young adults, it acts as a transition into individuality and adulthood. Without being cared for by your parents anymore, you must learn to be responsible for yourself. With this responsibility comes time management, you will learn to allocate time to study. By directly attending a four year institution your surrounding peers will be near your level educationally. Students with similar test scores and grades will be together, so a sense of competition is implied through the gathering of classmates. Another advantage of a four year university is the direct, andShow MoreRelated Defining a Higher Education Essay664 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesDefining a Higher Education A university education is the key to a career, not just a job; it is a higher education that stimulates the brain to handle new challenges, and the intelligence to view the bigger picture of life. Students who attend college are seeking the knowledge it takes to live a better life. Two authors who discuss their views on education in their essays are Jon Spayde, Ã¢â¬Å"Learning in the Key of LifeÃ¢â¬ and John Henry Newman, Ã¢â¬Å"The Idea of University.Ã¢â¬ Both essays discussRead MoreAdvanced Practice Nursing Essay examples1255 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfor continuing education in nursing has been accentuated in response to rapidly changing health care environment. Expanding knowledge by pursuing higher education allows nurses to enlarge oneÃ¢â¬â¢s practice. Furthermore, higher education in nursing has been shown that a nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s level of education can become a critical factor to the patient-centered quality of care. This essay describes increased demand for higher ed ucation in nursing and emphasizes the necessity of continuing education to provide optimumRead MoreBenefits Of Higher Education For The Displaced Blue Collar Workers917 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Benefits of Higher Education for the Displaced Blue-Collar Workers For many displaced blue-collar workersÃ¢â¬â¢ the option of learning new skills through the advantages of a college is an alternative they might be considering. On the one hand, Mike Rose claims, Ã¢â¬Å"To acknowledge a broader range of intellectual capacity is to take seriously the concept of cognitive variability.Ã¢â¬ He suggests that the average blue-collar worker has conscious intellectual abilities such as thinking, reasoning and rememberingRead MoreAnalysis Of The Oil And Gas Management1227 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Hassan Achour GSM LONDON 11 March 2015 An Analysis of Skills and Knowledge Required to Undertake Degree Studies in Oil and Gas Management and Follow a Career Path in Engineering 1.0 Oil and Gas Management Degree With the fast advancement and development of the vitality area, a vocation in the oil and gas industry has unquestionably turned into a standout amongst the most imminent in the business sector today. In UK, for instance, the industry has seen a colossal venture running regardingRead MoreShould Georgia Perimeter Merge with DeKalb Technical College?941 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesan institution of higher learning, especially one providing a general or liberal arts education rather than technical or professional training. (Dictionary.com) College today has vastly adapted to modern technology and modern society. Many colleges have been reconstructed for a targeted type of student. Universities are design for the student seeking to further their education within a scholarly environment. Two year colleges are design for the student seeking higher education with the options toRead MoreThe University Of Delaware Technical Community College Essay1489 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Scholarly Paper Kayla Saints University of Delaware Provide a clear definition For prospective students wanting to study nursing in college, there are two paths available for them to take. They can either go to a two year college and graduate with an ADN, or they can attend a four year college and graduate with a BSN. The issue with these programs is that a large part of the population believe that the degrees are comparable (Matthias, A., Kim-Godwin, Y.). In actuality, theyRead MoreThe American Model Of Research Oriented Education1518 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescountries have attempted to adapt their structure and approach to mirror the American model. Whether by adopting the American model of research-oriented education or by implementing mass higher education (as opposed to education for the elites), other nations are seeking to create world-class universities. This has created a global demand for college education where any university can potentially attract students from around the world. As such, colleges have become veritable cultural hubs of globalizationRe ad MorePersonal Statement For Self Exploration872 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesperform self-exploration to gain a better understanding of myself and my career goals. In addition to providing insights into myself, this exercise will enable the comparison of my current situation to my future goals. Upon beginning my college education, I always thought IÃ¢â¬â¢d earn a degree and then figure out what I wanted to do with it. Now I understand the necessity of knowing myself better and formulating a plan prior to graduation. To understand myself better, it is important to first recognizeRead MoreValuing Work: Advice to a New College Freshman to Please the Manager773 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAmerica, more often than not, jobs are valued based upon a mixture of social prestige and salary. Some jobs are extremely lucrative and have a great deal of prestige, like being an engineer, a doctor or a lawyer, because of the intelligence and education that is presumed to be necessary attain these positions as well as the money these professionals earn. Other jobs have less prestige, but are still relatively high-income, like becoming a plumber. A plumber is still a skilled trade that requiresRead MoreVocation1287 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThere are so many options; often times people are lost as to where to go. In our society, many of the decisions we make are made with money in mind. People will do almost anything for money, even if that means being unhappy. This class, and my SI education in general has framed for me a new way of living. That is, living happily. This does not mean that the work/job I perform is not hard. Instead, it means, that I must find something that I enjoy doing, and find a career based around my interest. This
Question: Discuss about theHospitality for Technological and Environmental Factors. Answer: Introduction The hospitality industry is the industry in which the services related to food and accommodations are provided to the customers. Accommodations are provided to the customers in hotels and resorts. There are many factors which impact the hospitality industry. In this paper, the focus will be given to the technological factor and environmental factors. Also, the discussion will be made that how they impact on the hospitality industry. In the last phase recommendations will be discussed. It is important to consider effective strategies so that the services that are offered to the customers can be conducted smoothly. Socio-cultural factor Socio-cultural factors are considered as a major part of the hospitality industry. This factor affects the hotel industry by focusing on the values of the society. Sri- Lanka is one of the multi-ethnic countries with more than 22 million populations. The culture of the country is a rich blend of the various cultural patterns in which Buddhism are 69 % and Hinduism are 8 % (Razick, Long, Ismail Salleh, 2016).In the recent scenario, the cultural pattern of the country is affecting the diverse range of cultures. The culture of Sri- Lanka is affected by the Buddhism because it has been long influenced by the heritage of Theravada Buddhism. It has been seen that Socio culture is giving negative impact on the hospitality industry in many ways. The impact is mainly seen in the youth of the country and the growth is affected by the activities that are done in the country. There are many activities that are conducted in Sri Lanka like drug addiction and also there are many anti-social acts that are seen in the country. The impacts of the activities are seen on the values of the individuals living in the country. There are many tourists are also engaged in the activities like prostitution and also Cabare dancing. Also, the employees of the hospitality industries indulge in the activities, so the direct impact is on the efficiency of the work. The employees are not giving their best towards the assigned task. By considering these activities the negative impact is seen in the hospitality industry. The values of the country are not considered and it is spoiling the image of the hotels situated in Sri- Lanka. The people who are living in Sri- Lanka are enhancing the discrimination between different castes. There are many tourists who are engaged so much in drugs that they spoil the environment and create a problem for others to stay and visit the country (Dissanayake Areesantichai, 2017). Before visiting the country tourists think twice as it creates a major problem for the people to live in this type of surroundings and also the values of the country is affected. For example: Recently the violence takes place in which the Muslims are targeted and also there was discrimination against the people of every caste. So, it has given negative impact on the hospitality industry that people have to think twice before visiting and it has impacted the profitability of the hospitality industry. Recommendations By analyzing the socio-cultural environment it is important to minimize the challenges prevailing in the market so that activities and profitability can be achieved effectively. To minimize the prostitution it is important for the country to consider the basic laws related to prostitution like Immoral trafficking prevention activities that help to minimize the sexual and prostitution in the country. It is important to enhance the quality of education so that it will enable the individuals and consider the moral principles to choose a proper life. Counseling should also be given to the people and also jobs should be provided to the people so that they can survive in the environment. Campaigns should not be created to enhance the awareness about prostitution so that good attitudes among the parents and general people can be fostered. The best way to reduce prostitution is by surveillance system so that restriction can be made in entering to the business related to prostitution (Braithwaite D'Costa, 2016). It is important to take into consideration this law as it helps the hospitality industry to enhance the profits and demand. Next strategy that should be considered is to give value to the people and maintain their culture so that they can be happy. The basic rules and regulations should be imposed by the government so that the activities can be conducted smoothly and tourist will also feel good and visit the country where there is unity among the people. It is seen unity plays a great role to create a good environment. People are discriminating between different religions so it is important to maintain peace and harmony (Ryan, 2015). For instance: recently Violence takes place in which the main target was Muslims. So to reduce this type of conflict and discrimination it is important to set rules and regulations properly. These strategies can reduce the challenges prevailing in the country. Also, it can be beneficial for the hospitality industry to attract more and more tourist towards the country. If more tourists are attracted then it can help to enhance the overall profitability in a proper manner. For a hospitality industry, it is important to attract the customers so that goodwill can be maintained. It can only be done by giving value to the people who are living in the society and also by minimizing the challenges that are impacting the hospitality industry. The hospitality industry should focus on giving training to its employees so that they can conduct the activities with efficiency and it can also help the customers to enhance the satisfaction level in an effective manner. Environmental factor Environmental factor that is impacting on the hospitality industry in Sri Lanka is waste disposal system. For instance: Waste disposal system is not effective and the waste is disposed in the sea. The negative impact on the hospitality industry as the drainage waste creates a dirty environment. Just because of not having the proper drainage disposal system the overall demand is affected (Gunarathne Lee, 2015).If a clean environment is not there then it can create a bad image in the mind of tourists. It affects the number of visitors who are availing the services of the tourist industry. Just because of not having good drainage disposal system it is seen that there are many environmental issues that take place. It is seen due to the hot weather in Sri Lanka the consumption of water is more and due to the wastage of the resources, it is not possible to offer proper services to the customers. It will impact the growth of the hospitality industry (Central environmental authority, 2013). It is important to give proper services to the customers so that demand can be enhanced in a proper manner. Many people face the problem of breathing and also suffer from many diseases (Fraj, Matute Melero, 2015). Also, there is no proper planning of the resources. The hotel industry is also affected by the environmental pollution. In Sri Lanka, the demand of the hospitality industry slows down just because of the increase in the pollution level. It is seen that tourist are less interested to visit the country just because of the high level of pollution (Central environmental authority, 2013). Also, land degradation is also giving impact on the growth of the hospitality industry. It is seen that in Sri Lanka there is fertile soil and also wildlife is considered as an important part of Sri Lanka. Due to the enhancement in the construction of the tourism facilities, it is seen that there is pressure on the resources (Buultjens, Ratnayake Gnanapala, 2016). For example, the animals are not able to survive for the long term because of the lack of resources so it is giving negative impact on the hospitality industry by reducing the places to visit for the visitors. The place for the visitors are reducing that also impacts the demand for the hospitality industry. Tourist places in Sri Lanka are reducing just because of the wastage of the resources that take place in the organization. Recommendations By analyzing the environmental factor it has been seen that the major impact on the hospitality industry is due to ineffective drainage disposal system. It is important to have proper waste disposal system so that the environment can be kept clean for the visitors. If the environment is not clean then it is difficult for the hospitality industry to enhance the demand in the market (Sinnathamby, Paul, Dasanayaka, Gunawardena Fernando, 2016). It is important to keep the environment clean so that people can feel good to visit the country. If they visit then it can be easy for the hospitality industry to enhance the overall demand in a proper manner. There are various strategies that can be used to safeguard the environment. Also, prevention should be taken so that growth can be achieved by the hospitality industry (Udunuwara Sanders, 2016). The strategies which are related to safeguarding the environment are: Proper consumption of the resources. It is important to consume the resource s in a proper manner so that growth can be achieved in a proper manner. If the resources are available then it can also help the hospitality to enhance the demand of the customers. To maintain proper waste disposal system it is important to impose strict rules and regulations so that activities can be conducted smoothly. The sewage should not be entered into the rivers as it affects the environment and also creates a negative impact on the tourists. So proper rules and regulations should be considered so that activities of the hospitality industry can be conducted smoothly and also it will help to enhance the overall profits of the company (Wijesekara et al., 2014). It is also important to consider the latest technologies by the hospitality industry so that sewage can be dumped easily without giving negative impact on the demand of the hospitality industry. The challenge of land degradation can be resolved by focusing on the latest technology so that resources can be utilized in a proper manner (Molina-Azorn, Tar, Pereira-Moliner, Lpez-Gamero Pertusa-Ortega, 2015). Next strategy on which focus should be given is proper maintenance and construction. Strict environmental sustainable guidelines should be followed so that hospitality industry can achieve its growth by proper utilization of the resources (Maheshi, 2015). If there are proper rules and regulations imposed on the construction then it will help to reduce the pollution that affects the demand of the tourists. Pollution is one of the important factors of Sri Lanka that should be controlled so that the individuals can survive in a proper manner with a happy life (Kumara et al., 2015). So, the government should focus on safeguarding the environment by implementing strict rules and regulations. Also, if these rules and regulations are not considered by the company then a strict penalty should be imposed. The focus should also be given on designing well planned, large-scale tourist resorts so that sound sustainable practices can be taken into consideration (Chan, Hon, Okumus Chan, 2017). For example : proper sewage disposable facilities with proper recycling of water and also solar lightning for the resort public areas so that resources can also be secured and tourist can also be satisfied. Conclusion By evaluating the paper it is concluded that the factors impacting the hospitality industry of Sri Lanka are Socio cultural factor and environmental factor. It is important to consider proper strategies so that activities and also growth can be achieved by the companies in this sector. The best way discussed to reduce the challenge in socio-cultural is taking into consideration rules and regulations that should be imposed by the government so that growth can be achieved. Also in an environmental factor, the resources should be utilized properly by proper recycling of water and by using solar lighting. References Braithwaite, J., D'Costa, B. (2016). Cascades Across An" Extremely Violent Society": Sri Lanka.International journal of conflict and violence,10(1), 11. Buultjens, J. W., Ratnayake, I., Gnanapala, W. A. C. (2016). Post-conflict tourism development in Sri Lanka: implications for building resilience.Current Issues in Tourism,19(4), 355-372. Central environmental authority. (2013). Environmental pollution by industries Retrieved from https://www.cea.lk/web/en/2013-05-07-07-51-07/environmental-pollution-contorl-division/environmental-pollution-contorl-unit?id=48 Central environmental authority. (2013). Waste management unit. Retrieved from https://www.cea.lk/web/en/2013-05-07-07-51-07/environmental-pollution-contorl-division/environmental-pollution-contorl-unit?id=48 Chan, E. S., Hon, A. H., Okumus, F., Chan, W. (2017). An empirical study of environmental practices and employee ecological behavior in the hotel industry.Journal of Hospitality Tourism Research,41(5), 585-608. Dissanayake, T. N., Areesantichai, C. (2017). Patterns of Heroin Use and Risk Behaviors among Prisoners, Colombo, Sri Lanka.Journal of Health Research,31, S163-169. Fraj, E., Matute, J., Melero, I. (2015). Environmental strategies and organizational competitiveness in the hotel industry: The role of learning and innovation as determinants of environmental success.Tourism Management,46, 30-42. Gunarathne, N., Lee, K. H. (2015). Environmental Management Accounting (EMA) for environmental management and organizational change: An eco-control approach.Journal of Accounting Organizational Change,11(3), 362-383. Kumara, G. M. P., Perera, M. D. D., Wijekoon, W. M. S. M., Pathmarajha, S., Dayawansa, N. D. K., Mowjood, M. I. M., Galagedara, L. W. (2015). Water Pollution in a Natural Stream and Its Impacts on Society and Environment: A Review of Studies on Meda Ela, Sri Lanka. Inproc. of the 6th International Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction Management, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 11th-13th December. Maheshi, D. (2015). Environmental and economic assessment of open waste dumpmining in Sri Lanka.Resources, Conservation and Recycling,102, 67-79. Molina-Azorn, J. F., Tar, J. J., Pereira-Moliner, J., Lpez-Gamero, M. D., Pertusa-Ortega, E. M. (2015). The effects of quality and environmental management on competitive advantage: A mixed methods study in the hotel industry.Tourism Management,50, 41-54. Razick, A. S., Long, A. S., Ismail, K. H., Salleh, K. (2016). Buddhists View on Muslim Socioculture in Post-War Context of Sri Lanka. InProc. International Conference on Islamic Jurisprudence (ICIJ)(pp. 71-80). Ryan, C. (2015). Trends in hospitality management research: a personal reflection.International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management,27(3), 340-361. Sinnathamby, V., Paul, J. G., Dasanayaka, S. W. S. B., Gunawardena, S. H. P., Fernando, S. (2016). Factors affecting sustainability of municipal solid waste composting projects in Sri Lanka. InAbout the 1st International Conference in Technology Management (iNCOTeM 2016)(p. 98). Udunuwara, M., Sanders, D. (2016). Trends and Issues in Hospitality and Tourism.Colombo Business Journal: International Journal of Theory and Practice,7(2). Wijesekara, S. S. R. M. D. H. R., Mayakaduwa, S. S., Siriwardana, A. R., de Silva, N., Basnayake, B. F. A., Kawamoto, K., Vithanage, M. (2014). Fate and transport of pollutants through a municipal solid waste landfill leachate in Sri Lanka.Environmental earth sciences,72(5), 1707-1719.
Monday, April 20, 2020
Introduction Communication within organizations is vital for full attainment of goals and objectives to enhance customer satisfaction in terms of service experience. Company interactions with customers involve applying different methods that ensure that customersÃ¢â¬â¢ pieces of information reach the sales department.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Swansea Metropolitan and University of Wales: Trinity St Davids specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since this communication process involves many people, it requires appropriate management to guarantee best customer service to the present and future customers. Currently, organizations are adopting the use of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software to improve quality of their service provisions to their clients. The software helps in organizing and tracking contacts of both the present and future customers. Just as other online applications, the software minim izes logistical requirements and time wastage since all employees in every department can view a customerÃ¢â¬â¢s information and respond appropriately (Murray 2013). At the same time, a customer will obtain timely response from the necessary departments hence saving productive time. The Database Management System that Swansea Metropolitan University and the University of Wales: Trinity Saint Davids included in their system will ease the logistics required in communicating to and managing their students. The report expounds on the benefits that will accrue to the two institutions after adopting CRM, especially in decision-making processes. In addition, it will discuss the principles of Big Data and metrics and examines the gains that the University of Wales is likely to realise in adopting CRM. Finally, the treatise will expound on the ethical and legal implications that may face the institution for storing studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ data for future marketing purposes. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) System Organisations interact with customers in three main ways: back office operations, front office contacts, and business contacts. In marketing, business contacts is where a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce intermingles with suppliers and customers through trade associations and various industry activities (Malhotra Birks 2007). Front office contacts entail straight connections that company workers have with dealers and consumers through mails and phone messaging. On the other hand, back office operations are sequences that aid phone call and e-mailing services such as marketing, promotion, and investment relations.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The use of CRM pays more focus to customers thereby enabling organizations to attract and retain customers through better service provisions, understand their customers, cut cost of managing customers and increase profit maximization. For successful service provision, CRM has different components such as campaign management, sales force automation, and customer service. Further, the process allows firms to communicate to their customers on marketing activities, sell goods and services to customers, and handle after-sales service necessities for customers. Markedly, the Customer Relationship Management software stores all communications with clients as they transpire so that any company worker can retrieve it in future in case need arises. Sales force automation component eliminates instances of effort duplication hence increasing efficiency. Moreover, it expands sales opportunities for current and new customers and even makes it possible for employees not in the sales department to access customersÃ¢â¬â¢ recent data easily. In essence, the element improves customer services, as all employees are aware of consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ current contact information. When sales representatives get prospecti ve clients, they often use a given set of decisive factors that centre at a drive of attracting new businesses. In the campaign process, the targeted customers receive inducements inform of special sales terms and marketing resources (Murray 2013). This Customer Relationship Management element takes into account all promotion trends, customersÃ¢â¬â¢ feedbacks and ultimate scrutiny from the initiative. Elements and Benefits of CRM CRM software has enhanced levels of business-customer engagement in its ability to manage contract wins, business contacts, and clientÃ¢â¬â¢s information (Malhotra Birks 2007). Customer Relationship Management provides organisations with customersÃ¢â¬â¢ business information, which enables them supply products and services that meets customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. For that reason, CRM solutions enhance customer satisfaction. Additionally, the system allows effective cross-sell, up-sell, and provision of better customer services. Notably, organisations that understand the behaviours of their clients are highly likely to attract and retain current customers in the process.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Swansea Metropolitan and University of Wales: Trinity St Davids specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Advancements in technology has presented numerous challenges to companies in identifying the tastes and preferences of a target market and completely altered consumers buying behaviours thus forcing them to use new ways of reaching their present and prospective customers. An effective CRM solution helps business leaders in making prudent and insightful decisions. At the University of Wales: Trinity St Davids, the management will be able to understand the nature and dynamics of their students. For instance, the management will be able to save data of students applying for first year courses thus offering effective platforms for the academics department to identify the st udentsÃ¢â¬â¢ potentials and levels of interest in allocating the courses. Further, since the software allows for real time access of data in the dashboard, the university will be at an advantaged position to make right decisions at the right time. A marketing decision-maker having customersÃ¢â¬â¢ data at real time is able to monitor expected performances versus the actual results thus driving the marketing return on investments (Galligan 2012). The University will be able to process studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ requests and complaints in real time through the CRM dashboard. Evidently, the software reduces the costs of addressing studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ concern, as the administration will easily identify better processes at the contact centres. It makes student management easy since the administration can solve studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ issues on their first call given more in-depth data on the dashboard. StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ service provision within the university will be quick and timely given that the admini stration will have studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ data in real time and even mitigate potential threats to studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ satisfaction. The CRM system will also improve the rate at which the university will carry out course-selection for the new students, which will enable it gain competitive advantage over other institutions in Wales and England. When the university departments are able to work together, they will not only have great insights into the objectives of the institution but also develop effective marketing strategies (Wilson 2006).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Principles of Big Data and metrics Businesses that can handle Big Data are more likely to be competitive than their competitors who cannot (Hayes 2012). This concept involves bringing together vast quantities of data, analyzing and processing them to extract valuable information. When Swansea Metropolitan University and the University of Wales: Trinity Saint David merged, it is evident that there are abundant data that need re-organization and analysis for the benefit of the institutions. Since the two institutions have different management systems, data integration into a single system will be a challenging task, but through data federation and information integration, it will be possible. Here, data reside where they have been, instead of moving them to other applications. Big data involves fast analysis of varied and massive data that reflect on reality to gain the trust of other users. One has to understand first the reasons for acquiring Big Data. In other words, one has to kno w its importance and substantiate how he/she intends to extract valuable information from Big Data. This process will enable one to make substantial decisions regarding the functions of a business. For effective communication, a well-engineered and harmonised reporting system that removes information overload that can cause confusion for users is necessary. Data minimization is also a key principle of Big Data. This principle ensures that everybody get full data that they need for their work and not in excess of that (Hayes 2013). Data protection prevents exploitation and accessibility by unauthorised parties. Data in the universityÃ¢â¬â¢s database are extremely sensitive and requires maximum protection for use in a specified purpose. In addition, a functional reporting system where the validity of information is not in doubt and set operational goals maximise customer satisfaction. For better services, organisations need to train their employees so that they can answer customersÃ ¢â¬â¢ questions successfully. The process of data integration should be customer-centred to enable organisations create impact on their customers. In higher education, Big Data can focus on areas of student progress, institutional finance and budgeting, and resource optimisation. Benefits of Big Data to the University The University of Wales: Trinity St Davids stands to benefit immensely from developing Big Data Networks. For instance, the collected data will assist in addressing strategic issues, such as institutional finance management and budgeting. When the university hosts data at one point all employees can access it thus enhancing accountability and transparency in areas where funds are used. As a result, the universityÃ¢â¬â¢s overall management will have clean sheets on financial management hence making it register positive image to current and prospective students. Other areas that the institution will preserve its data include enrolment management, progress of strategi c plan, student learning, library, research advancement, procurement and faculty teaching and research performance. The University of Wales: Trinity St Davids will also be able to understand the demographics and behaviours of its students, as all students will be in the Database. Notably, the entire university department will have full access of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ details, such as characters, ages, religious affiliations, and nationalities. Essentially, the development will assist the institution in monitoring its students with ease. Additionally, Database Management System will benefit the university by optimising use of resources. This is possible since all departments will be monitoring and evaluating the expected results from all resources within the institution. Scrutiny of resources across all university departments will improve the usability and productivity of resources (Javalgi, Martin Young 2006). The initiative will also enable the university to recruit many students at ag o, as the process will not only automate all courses but also improve the relationship between new students and the university administration. In sum, the system will increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the university services. Ethical and Legal Issues In attempting to use customersÃ¢â¬â¢ data in marketing, the University of Wales: Trinity St Davids will be contravening the policy of individual privacy (Chisnall 1997). Since the institution may apply business-to-consumer marketing as a way of enticing other students to join its courses, the privacy concern is less clear on the context of internet development. Personal data like address, social security numbers, age, likes and dislikes are key concerns to customers. In the UK, the revised 1998 Data Protection Act helps in protecting personal data and marketers ought to be consistent with privacy law whenever they are marketing their products and services via the internet (Ethical Constraints n.d.). In addition, the Univers ity of Wales: Trinity St Davids will not be able to control those who will access the data, as it will be difficult to identify end-users. However, the institution can plant cookies in on the end-users computers to enable websites identify them. The university should also get the consent of the students to transfer data ownership to third parties. On the legal front, citizens expect their personal data and resources to keep them safe and secure. The Data Protection Act (DPA) assists in giving evidence in a legal proceeding involving unlawful sharing of personal data. The university will have to document the need for sharing data with other prospective consumers, information to share and the means of sharing it to avert situations of privacy violations (Ethical Constraints n.d.). Since the Welsh Government encouraged the need for higher institutions to adopt CRM, this does not guarantee the university to share customersÃ¢â¬â¢ information under a public sector as per the provisions of section 22 of the DPA. Conclusion The universityÃ¢â¬â¢s option of adopting the use of CRM in its services presents numerous benefits its ways of handling studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ services and in its overall management. For long-term benefits, the institution should use widely packaged customer database management software applications since they are flexible and indispensable in meeting current marketing needs (Myers 2013). Moreover, rapid and flexible software will increase the security of customersÃ¢â¬â¢ data thus enhancing clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ loyalty to the institution. On marketing, the university should comprehend the provisions of the DPA to help it in differentiating between readily available data and others that are under copyright protection. References Chisnall, P. 1997, Marketing research (5th ed.), McGraw-Hill, London. Ethical Constraints, Internet Studies.Ã Web. Galligan, F. 2012, Altmetrics for Librarians and Institutions: Part II, Content Management Services for Librarie s and Publishers. Web. Hayes, B. 2012, Big Data has Big Implications for Customer Experience Management | Business Over Broadway, Business Over Broadway: Transforming Business Through Customer Insight. Web. Hayes, B. 2013, Big Data has Big Implications for Customer Experience Management, The Big Data Hub | Understanding big data for the enterprise. Web. Javalgi, R., Martin, M., Young, R. 2006, Ã¢â¬ËMarketing research, market orientation and customer relationship management: a framework and implications for service providersÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 20. no. 1, pp. 12-23. Malhotra, N. K. Birks, D. F. 2007, Marketing research: an applied approach (3rd ed.), Prentice Hall/Financial Times, Harlow, England. Murray, M. 2013, Customer Relationship Management (CRM), Logistics. Web. Myers, R. 2013, Legal and Ethical Issues in Obtaining and Sharing Information, Morris, Manning Martin, LLP.Ã Web. Wilson, A. M. 2006 Marketing research: an integrated approach (2nd ed.), Prentice Hall/Financial Times, Harlow, England. This report on Swansea Metropolitan and University of Wales: Trinity St Davids was written and submitted by user Duncan Mccall to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, March 15, 2020
International Peacekeeping essays Peacekeeping is more than you really think. When you think of peacekeeping, you think of everyone getting along, with no problems. It is more than that, much more. People die to keep the peace. People spend their lives trying to keep the peace. This entire country tries to keep the peace, but yet it is still not all there, and there is nothing we can do except to continue what we have done in the past. The United States is the most powerful country in the world, and we basically decide what goes on in it. With this kind of power, the U.S. can do whatever they need to do to keep the peace and this is what they do, and there is no other country in the world that can interfere with it, or we will crush them. I chose to write this research paper on the most intricate peacekeeping mission that I could find, and where the U.S. military does what I believe they should do. These missions, which began in April 1991, play a very important role in the Middle Eastern and American relations in these countries. The mission is rightfully titled UNIKOM, or United Nations Iraq Kuwait Observation Mission. UNIKOM was established by Security Council resolution 689 and forced the withdrawal of Iraqi forces from the territory of Kuwait. (UNIKOM) At the time, Iraq had invaded Kuwait, and was trying to completely take over the territory, but the U.S, allies to Kuwait, decided to interfere, hoping that this would stop the small war and bring peace to the Middle East. (Encarta) The main reason that this debate has arisen is because Iraq and the Iraqi people are ruled by a brutal dictator that does not show compassion for the people, and that the people of Iraq have not had enough good scene to overthrow him, allowing him to continue his path of terror. When he decided to invade Kuwait his people obeyed. The various groups in the remnants of Yugoslavia did not spend the last decade killing each other with such enthusiasm because they...
Friday, February 28, 2020
FAT file systems - Essay Example File Allocation Tables (FAT) is of huge significance to the users of Compact Flash (CF) because the requirement of FAT type is different for the devices that are optimized with over 2.14 gigabytes (GB) of storage capacity unlike those that require only 2.13 GB. This topic has gained huge importance specifically after the hard diskÃ¢â¬â¢s application into the personal computers. This paper tends to create awareness among the camera users regarding the FAT through a comprehensive discussion of its history. Introduction: The subject of this white paper is the illustration of FAT File Systems. This white paper is directed at creating an understating among the users of camera regarding the File Allocation Tables, which are generally referred to as FAT. Because of the disparity between the need of FAT type among different devices, Compact Flash (CF) users need to be given a thorough understanding of the FAT so that they may be able to make the right choice as per their device. The scope of this white paper is limited to the discussion of history of FAT File Systems along with a brief review of the relation of FAT with the Compact Flash (CF) devices which generate files with sizes up to 5+ mega pixels. This white paper first gives a comprehensive account of the historical background of FAT. This is followed by a review of the use of FAT File Systems in CF. Finally, the findings are concluded in the last section. History of FAT File System: Development of FAT File System: In February, 1976, during his stay at the AlbuquerqueÃ¢â¬â¢s Hilton Hotel spanning five days, a child known as Bill Gates who has gained immense fame for his contributions in the world of computer developed and coded FAT (Gilbert). Ã¢â¬Å"FAT was designed for small disks and simple folder structuresÃ¢â¬ (Microsoft). Replacement of floppy disks with double-sided diskettes: The original Personal Computers made use of floppy disks for carrying the data whose capacity usually used to be 180 kilobyt es. After the floppy disks, use of double-sided diskettes increased. The double-sided diskettes used to be double the capacity of the floppy disks and were up to 5 ? inches in size. The initial DOS developers indicated the relation of sectors to individual files as well as identified the vacant tables by creating tables with a view to organizing the data. As a result of this, the Operating System (DOS) was able to use the limited space on the double-sided diskettes to the maximum limit. There was no more the need of availability of a continuous series of sectors for saving the files. It was possible to break up the data for the files and distribute that everywhere in the double-sided diskette in an increasingly organized and sequenced fashion; a process that is frequently referred to as fragmentation. Nevertheless, it was fortunate in those times to be able to keep the data in one diskette because one would not need to switch the diskettes in and out alternately time and again while the programÃ¢â¬â¢s operation would continue. Selection of table length: There are 768 sectors upon a diskette with a capacity of 360 KB. This required the table to be large enough in order to determine every single sector of the total of 768. There was also the requirement of some room for expansion because the developers were aware of the on-going creation of larger diskettes. Number of possible values permitted by the use of one byte per table did not exceed 512, so that would not practically serve the purpose. On the other hand, two bytes would waste the disk space by permitting 16384 entries. Thus, decision had to be made somewhere in between one and two bytes. So finally, table with the length of 12 bits that were equal to 1.5 bytes were chosen so that the usage of sectors on the first double-sided diskettes could be traced. As a result of this, 4096 possible values were permitted. Such a FAT table was able to deal with storage devices with the capacity as large as 2 GB prov ided that each entry
Wednesday, February 12, 2020
The Second Amendment in 1776 and Now - Essay Example English common law has recognized the significance of proper arms control for a long time. The founding fathers believed that citizens have a right to own arms when working in the militia. Such right ensures the presence of maximum protection and security since people can defend themselves whenever need arises (Cornell 10). The Supreme Court of the US has upheld the amendment in its three decisions in the years 1876, 1886 as well as in 1939. Therefore, the founding fathers advocated for collective rights interpretation whereby people were allowed to own arms only when in a group such as the militia but not individuals. The founding fathers had in mind the dangers of permitting individual citizens to purchase and own guns in the society. According to them, such permission would promote weapon related violence, and thereby make the society an unsafe place to live in. This collective right interpretation had prevailed in America for over a century, and therefore, it had been recognized and used in three Supreme Court rulings (Cornell 15). However, this meaning remained no-contentious until in 1960 when an additional individual right to bear arms for self-defense was recognized. Therefore, the assertion of the individual right has made Americans to currently consider that the Second Amendment warrants their right to own a gun (Charles 27). The individual rights model has either undercut or blocked passage of laws that regulate purchase and use of guns over the last twenty years. For instance, the assault weapons prohibition of 1994 was permitted to expire after ten years due to intense pressure from gun rights activists and organizations (Doherty 31). Even though the gunÃ¢â¬â¢s lobby persistence that the long common laws and traditions have existed supporting an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s right to own and use weapons, the English law has regulated guns from the 14th century (Gonzales 45). This is because of the existence of Game Laws that restricted ownership of weapons only to the wealthy people who had substantial income and owned huge lands (Baron 3). Therefore, the middle class as well as peasants were not permitted to own or use weapons such as guns. Currently, gun lobbyists argue that the English Bill of Rights presented to the monarchs by the House of Commons in 1689 guaranteed everyone to own and use weapons (Anderson and Horwitz 35). However, the law restricted the ownership to Protestants who were of the right social class. Further, the Bill of Rights acknowledged the need for the law to regulate weapons. In this regard, the Bill of Rights does not recognize ownership and use of weapons among the middle class as well as the common citizens (Labunski 53). The privilege to possess and use weaponsÃ¢â¬âmore so, gunsÃ¢â¬âwas left to the wealthy people in the society. In Britain, the law on gun control has been maintained while in the US, there has been growing resistance to regulation of possession and use of guns. The most recent case occurred in March 2007, when the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia recognized the individual rights model (Smith 36). It decided that the ban on handguns since 1976 in Washington D.C. has been in violation of the Second Amendment that guarantees the right of an individual to own and use guns. According to the
Friday, January 31, 2020
Case Analysis for North American Warehouse Clubs Essay The competitive environment has changed drastically since the BSG case was originally written. The United States (US) continues to decline in the market as opposed to several years ago, but due to certain qualities it continues to remain very competitive in the market. One factor which gives the US a competitive edge is innovation. US companies are highly sophisticated and innovative. For the purposes of this analysis, the focus will be on innovation. Modern technology with information systems and applications with state of the art information and communication technologies are leading factors in the success of businesses today. Many newer businesses use e-technologies as a tool that not only improves efficiency, but gives them the competitive edge against those companies which are still running operations with outdated technology. Companies who have been around for decades are forced to implement new systems depending on their business needs. Changing technology is an initiative that is generally high cost, taking time to implement. There are numerous options available today that if the implementation of a new system is not strategically planned it could ultimately place a business in a financial deficit forcing businesses to reduce operations and sometimes shut down. It is important for businesses to invest in research and development (RD) when deciding to develop new processes to maintain a competitive edge. Looking at the case, it is apparent that Costco was the leader in modern technology compared to the other two competitors. Costco began to grow its business with two websites in 2004 in the US and in Canada. CostcoÃ¢â¬â¢s e-commerce sales more than tripled over several years, reaching sales of over $1.2B in 2007. BJÃ¢â¬â¢s began upgrading technology in 2007 which was fully implemented in 2009. Although net sales increased from $8,792M to $9,802M during the implementation years, net sales have seized to take an impressive incline with the new system. Net sales only increased $152M from 2009 to 2010. The case did not report on any innovations related to technology for SamÃ¢â¬â¢s Club. Some of the problems SamÃ¢â¬â¢s Club faces compared to the other competitors can be directed at the location of warehouses, their competition with Wal-Mart and their low scale target market. One way to improve would be to focus on their target market by offering upscale merchandise which will target upscale clientele. SamÃ¢â¬â¢s Club could purchase BJÃ¢â¬â¢s which already sells high quality brand merchandise. Merging with this competitor would tighten the market share even more. Focusing on members through this type of merchandising strategy will increase profitability. Another way to improve would be to reduce the amounts of international imports and focus on using American made products. Reducing import/export costs overall will increase revenue growth and financial performance. References World Economic Forum. 2012. The Global Competitiveness Report 2012-2013. Geneva: World Economic Forum. Available at www3.weforum.org//WEF_GlobalCompetitivenessReport_2012-13 Wall Street Journal. SamÃ¢â¬â¢s Club CEO Launches Charge on Rivals, Updated October 31, 2012, 1:44 p.m. ET http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203335504578089131653808580.html By SHELLY BANJO version of this article appeared October 31, 2012, on page B7 in the U.S. edition of The Wall Street Journal, with the headline: Sams Club CEO Launches Charge on Rivals. http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-505123_162-43940823/sams-clubs-risky-move-into-sma
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Paintings in Rome In 211 BC the great general M. Claudius Marcellus returned to Rome after his decisive defeat of Syracuse. With him came a vast booty of Hellenistic artifacts. Remaining outside the sacred precincts of Rome, he supplicated the Senate for the purification and glory of a triumphal procession, realizing that they would both make a visual impression in his triumph and also be an ornament for the city." He opened his triumph impressively with an allegorical painting of Syracuse made prisoner. Paintings carried in triumphal processions, specifically commissioned to commemorate victorious military campaigns, not only added immensely to the celebratory nature of the rite, they also increased its sociopolitical power. Roman triumphal painting also served to acquaint Romans with novel artistic conventions, previously foreign to their experience. Although none of the paintings commissioned by victorious Roman generals to decorate their triumphal processions survives, the testimonial provide crucial alternate evidence to determine their role in shaping Roman political and artistic culture in the Republican period. During the Republic, Roman paintings with historical themes commemorated the empire's expansion: for example, the conquests of Carthage in 201 BC, Sardinia in 174 BC, and Macedonian in 168 BC Subjects included, at one end of the spectrum, pared-down iconic personifications and, at the other end, full-fledged battle scenes in landscape settings. Roman historical paintings not only secured the private memories of participants in actual events; they also served a didactic and propagandistic function in the public sphere of Roman political and religious institutions. The Roman governing class commissioned historical paintings to inform a specifically Roman audience of its achievements, to educate that audience about its policies, and thus to persuade that audience to adopt its views and follow a particular course of action. It used historical paintings to implement ideology. Ancient Rome inherited arguments, already old, for the superiority of painting over any other form of communicatio n to affect and manipulate an audience. Further, Romans embraced the idea that historical painting was at its most effective when it became the embodiment of what it represented, or, to use the terms preferred by Freedberg, when the sign becomes the living embodiment of what it signifies. (Ancient authors, for example, relish anecdotes describing portraits that profoundly affected spectators long after the death of their subjects.) Toward that end, Roman patrons became increasingly sophisticated about representational strategies and throughout the course of the Republic procured the most commanding examples possible.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Ecriture feminine, literally Ã¢â¬Å"women's writing,Ã¢â¬ Ã more closely, the writing of the female body and female disparity in language and text,Ã is a strain ofÃ feminist literary theory that originated in FranceÃ in the early 1970s and included foundational theorists such asÃ Helene Cixous,Ã Monique Wittig,Ã Luce Irigaray,Ã Chantal Chawaf,Ã andÃ Julia Kristeva,Ã and also other writers like psychoanalytical theoristÃ Bracha Ettinger,Ã who joined this field in the early 1990s. Ã Generally, French feminists tended to focus their attention on language, analyzing the ways in which meaning is produced. They concluded that language as we commonly think of it is a decidedly male realm, which therefore only represents a world from the male point of view.  Nonetheless, the French women's movement developed in much the same way as the feminist movements elsewhere in Europe or in the United States: French women participated in consciousness-raising groups; demonstrated in the streets on theÃ 8th of March; fought hard for women's right to choose whether to have children; raised the issue of violence against women; and struggled to change public opinion on issues concerning women and women's rights. The fact that the very first meeting of a handful of would-be feminist activists in 1970 only managed to launch an acrimonious theoretical debate, would seem to mark the situation as typically Ã¢â¬ËFrench' in its apparent insistence on the primacy of theory over politics.  Helene CixousÃ first coinedÃ ecriture feminineÃ in her essay, Ã¢â¬Å"The Laugh of the MedusaÃ¢â¬ (1975), where she asserts Ã¢â¬Å"Woman must write her self: must write about women and bring women to writing, from which they have been driven away as violently as from their bodiesÃ¢â¬ because their sexual pleasure has been repressed and denied expression. Inspired by Cixous' essay, a recent book titledLaughing with MedusaÃ (2006) analyzes the collective work of Julia Kristeva, Luce Irigaray, Bracha Ettinger and Helene Cixous. Ã These writers are as a whole referred to by Anglophones as Ã¢â¬Å"the French feminists,Ã¢â¬ though Mary Klages, Associate Professor in the English Department at the University of Colorado at Boulder, has pointed out that Ã¢â¬Å"poststructuralist theoretical feministsÃ¢â¬ would be a more accurate term. Ã Madeleine Gagnon is a more recent proponent. And since the aforementioned 1975 when Cixous also founded women's studies at Vincennes, she has been as a spokeswoman for the group Psychanalyse et politique and a prolific writer of texts for their publishing house, des femmes. And when asked of her own writing she says, Ã¢â¬Å"Je suis la ou ca parleÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"I am there where it/id/the female unconscious speaks. Ã¢â¬Å")Ã  American feminist critic and writerÃ Elaine ShowalterÃ defines this movement as Ã¢â¬Å"the inscription of the feminine body and female difference in language and text. Ã Ecriture feminine places experience before language, and privileges non-linear, cyclical writing that evades Ã¢â¬Å"the discourse that regulates theÃ phallocentricÃ system. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã Because language is not a neutral medium, the argument can be made that it functions as an instrument of patriarchal expression. Peter Barry writes that Ã¢â¬Å"the female writer is seen as suffering the handicap of having to use a mediu m (prose writing) which is essentially a male instrument fashioned for male purposesÃ¢â¬ . 18]Ã Ecriture feminine thus exists as an antithesis of masculine writing, or as a means of escape for women,although the phallogocentric argument itself has been criticised by W. A. Borody as misrepresenting the history of philosophies of Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢indeterminatenessÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ in Western culture. Borody claims that theÃ¢â¬Ëblack and whiteÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢view that the masculine=determinateness and the feminine=indeterminateness contains a degree of cultural and historical validity, but not when it is deployed to self-replicate a similar form of gender-othering it originally sought to overcome. 19]Ã In the words of Rosemarie Tong, Ã¢â¬Å"Cixous challenged women to write themselves out of the world men constructed for women. She urged women to put themselves-the unthinkable/unthought-into words. Ã¢â¬  Almost everything is yet to be written by women about femininity: about their sexuality, that is, its infinite and mobile complexity; about their eroticization, sudden turn-ons of a certain minuscule-immense area of their bodies; not about destiny, but about the adventure of such and such a drive, about trips, crossings, trudges, abrupt and gradual awakenings, discoveries of a zone at once timorous and soon to be forthright. 14] With regard to phallocentric writing, Tong explains that Ã¢â¬Å"male sexuality, which centers on what Cixous called the Ã¢â¬Å"big dickÃ¢â¬ , is ultimately boring in its pointedness and singularity. Like male sexuality, masculine writing, which Cixous usually termed phallogocentric writing, is also ultimately boringÃ¢â¬ and furthermore, that Ã¢â¬Å"stamped with the official seal of social approval, masculine writing is too weighted down to move or changeÃ¢â¬ . 20] Write, let no one hold you back, let nothing stop you: not man; not the imbecilic capitalist machinery, in which the publishing houses are the crafty, obsequiou s relayers of imperatives handed down by an economy that works against us and off our backs; notÃ yourself. Smug-faced readers, managing editors, and big bosses don't like the true texts of women- female-sexed texts. That kind scares them.  For Cixous, ecriture feminine is not only a possibility for female writers; rather, she believes it can be (and has been) employed by male authors such asÃ James Joyce. Some have found this idea difficult to reconcile with CixousÃ¢â¬â¢ definition of ecriture feminine (often termed Ã¢â¬Ëwhite inkÃ¢â¬â¢) because of the many references she makes to the female body (Ã¢â¬Å"There is always in her at least a little of that good motherÃ¢â¬â¢s milk. She writes in white inkÃ¢â¬ ) when characterizing the essence of ecriture feminine and explaining its origin. This notion raises problems for some theorists: Ã¢â¬Å"Ecriture feminine, then, is by its nature transgressive, rule-transcending, intoxicated, but it is clear that the notion as put forward by Cixous raises many problems. The realm of the body, for instance, is seen as somehow immune to social and gender condition and able to issue forth a pure essence of the feminine. Such essentialism is difficult to square with feminism which emphasizes femininity as a social constructionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬  For Luce Irigaray, women's sexual pleasureÃ jouissanceÃ cannot be expressed by the dominant, ordered, Ã¢â¬Å"logical,Ã¢â¬ masculine language because according to Kristeva, feminine language is derived from the pre-oedipal period of fusion between mother and child. Associated with the maternal, feminine language is not only a threat to culture, which is patriarchal, but also a medium through which women may be creative in new ways. Irigaray expressed this connection between women's sexuality and women's language through the following analogy: women'sÃ jouissanceÃ is more multiple than men's unitary, phallic pleasure becauseÃ  Ã¢â¬Å"woman has sex organs just about everywhereÃ¢â¬ ¦ feminine language is more diffusive than its Ã¢â¬Ëmasculine counterpart'. That is undoubtedly the reasonÃ¢â¬ ¦ her languageÃ¢â¬ ¦ goes off in all directions andÃ¢â¬ ¦ e is unable to discern the coherence. Ã¢â¬ Ã  Irigaray and Cixous also go on to emphasize that women, historically limited to being sexual objects for men (virgins or prostitutes, wives or mothers), have been prevented from expressing their sexuality in itself or for themselves. If they can do this, and if they can speak about it in the new languages it calls for, they will establ ish a point of view (a site of difference) from which phallogocentric concepts and controls can be seen through and taken apart, not only in theory, but also in practice. 26] Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Notes 1. ^Ã Baldick, Chris. Oxford Concise Dictionary of Literary Terms. OUP, 1990. 65. 2. ^Ã Showalter, Elaine. Critical Inquiry, Vol. 8, No. 2, Writing and Sexual Difference, (Winter, 1981), pp. 179-205. Published by: The University of Chicago Press. http://www. jstor. org/stable/1343159 3. ^Ã Irigaray, Luce,Ã Speculum of the Other Woman, Cornell University Press, 1985 4. ^Ã Cesbron, Georges, Ã¢â¬ Ecritures au feminin. Propositions de lecture pour quatre livres de femmesÃ¢â¬ in Degre Second, juillet 1980: 95-119 5. Ã Mistacco, Vicki, Ã¢â¬Å"Chantal Chawaf,Ã¢â¬ in Les femmes et la tradition litteraire Ã¢â¬â Anthologie du Moyen Age a nos jours; Seconde p artie: XIXe-XXIe siecles, Yale Press, 2006, 327-343 6. ^Ã Kristeva, JuliaÃ Revolution in Poetic Language, Columbia University Press, 1984 7. ^Ã Griselda Pollock, Ã¢â¬Å"To Inscribe in the Feminine: A Kristevan Impossibility? Or Femininity, Melancholy and Sublimation. Ã¢â¬ Ã Parallax, n. 8, [Vol. 4(3)], 1998. 81-117. 8. ^Ã Ettinger, Bracha,Ã Matrix . Halal(a) Ã¢â¬â Lapsus. Notes on Painting, 1985-1992. MOMA, Oxford, 1993. (ISBN 0-905836-81-2). Reprinted in:Ã Artworking 1985-1999. Edited by Piet Coessens. Ghent-Amsterdam: Ludion / Brussels: Palais des Beaux-Arts, 2000. (ISBN 90-5544-283-6) 9. ^Ã Ettinger, Bracha,Ã The Matrixial BorderspaceÃ (essays 1994-1999), Minnesota University Press, 2006 10. ^Ã Pollock, Griselda, Ã¢â¬Å"Does Art Think? Ã¢â¬Å", in:Ã Art and ThoughtÃ Blackwell, 2003 11. ^Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Murfin, Ross C. Ã¢â¬ Ã http://www. ux1. eiu. edu/~rlbeebe/what_is_feminist_criticism. pdf 12. ^Ã Moi, Toril, ed. French Feminist Thought. Basil Blac kwell Ltd, 1987. (ISBN 0-631-14972-4) 13. Ã Zajko, Vanda and Leonard, Miriam,Ã Laughing with Medusa. Oxford University Press, 2006 14. ^Ã aÃ bÃ Klages, Mary. Ã¢â¬Å"Helene Cixous: The Laugh of the Medusa. Ã¢â¬ 15. ^Ã Jones, Ann Rosalind. Feminist Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2 (Summer, 1981), pp. 247-263. Published by: Feminist Studies, Inc. http://www. jstor. org/stable/3177523 16. ^Ã Showalter, Elaine. Ã¢â¬Å"Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness. Ã¢â¬ Ã The New Feminist Criticism: essays on women, literature, and theory. Elaine Showalter, ed. London: Virago, 1986. 249. 17. ^Ã Cixous, Helene. Ã¢â¬Å"The Laugh of the Medusa. Ã¢â¬ Ã New French Feminisms. Elaine Marks and Isabelle de Courtivron, eds. New York: Schocken, 1981. 253. 18. ^Ã Barry, Peter. Beginning TheoryÃ : An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. New York: Manchester UP, 2002. 126 19. ^Ã Wayne A. Borody (1998) pp. 3, 5 Figuring the Phallogocentric Argument with Respect to the Classical Greek Philosophical Tradition Nebula: A Netzine of the Arts and Science, Vol. 13 (pp. 1-27) (http://kenstange. com/nebula/feat013/feat013. html) . 20. ^Ã aÃ bÃ Tong, Rosemarie Putnam. Feminist ThoughtÃ : A More Comprehensive Introduction. New York: Westview P, 2008. 276. 1. ^Ã Helene Cixous, Summer 1976. 22. ^Ã Klages, Mary. Ã¢â¬Å"Helene Cixous: Ã¢â¬ËThe Laugh of the Medusa. 23. ^Ã Barry, Peter. Beginning TheoryÃ : An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. New York: Manchester UP, 2002. 128. 24. ^Ã Murfin, Ross C. http://www. ux1. eiu. edu/~rlbeebe/what_is_feminist_criticism. pdf 25. ^Ã Irigaray, Luce. This Sex. 26. ^Ã Jones, Ann Rosalind. Fem inist Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2 (Summer, 1981), pp. 247-263. Published by: Feminist Studies, Inc. http://www. jstor. org/stable/3177523. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- External links
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
The late 1700s and early 1800s were a time full of expansion and innovation in the United States of America. The country was getting bigger, both in population and in geographic size, and the government was getting more powerful as well. This was because of the new Constitution that was put into place in 1787 that replaced the Articles of Confederation and took most of the power away from the individual states and gave it to the federal government. When the Constitution was ratified, both Brutus (believed to be Robert Yates), and Alexander Hamilton were in a debate over the potential power of the federal government, and more specifically, the power of the Supreme Court in Federalist 78 and BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢ eleventh and twelfth letters. AlexanderÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This type of longevity in office ensures that the judges do not face any type of political pressure by either the government of the people themselves. It also prevents the other two branches of government from havi ng any type of influence on them. This works both ways, however. The Judiciary relies on the other two branches to enforce its decision. It has no power to do so by itself. Hamilton states it has no influence over either the sword or the purse...It may truly be said to have neither FORCE nor WILL, but merely judgment. This reinforces the idea that the judiciary is very weak in comparison to the other branches. The legislative branch controls the money, or Ã¢â¬Å"the purseÃ¢â¬ , and the executive contains the military, or Ã¢â¬Å"the swordÃ¢â¬ . The judicial branch also poses no threats to any political rights. Federalist 78 outright protects the idea of judicial review, one of the most controversial topics. Hamilton claims that the court not only has the right, but the duty to decide when acts of Congress are constitutional or unconstitutional and to base their decision firmly off the Constitution whenever there are any type of conflicts. He regarded this as a protection against manipulation by Congress, which was a far more serious concern. Fifteen years after the publishing of BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢ letters and Federalist 78, the landmark case Marbury v. Madison was broughtShow MoreRelatedThe Power Of Judicial Review Essay1805 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe power of judicial review was established by the Supreme Court in the 1803 case Marbury v. Madison and gives the judicial branch the ability to decide the constitutionality of a law or Executive action. Judicial review has no constitutional grounds, meaning that the Supreme Court essentially created its own power: the power to interpret the constitution. Since then, the balance between judicial activism and judicial restraint has varied greatly from era to era. Judicial restraint occurs when justicesRead MoreSupremacy Judicial Review : The Power Of The Other Branches Of Government856 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSupremacy Judicial Review Among the three branches of government, the branch that had received the least amount of attention was the Judiciary. Compared to the other two branches, the Judiciary is rarely discussed in great detail. Federalists like Alexander Hamilton argue that this is because the Judicial branch has significantly the least amount of power. However, Brutus of the Anti-Federalist party argues that the JudiciaryÃ¢â¬â¢s power of constitutional review can impact the power of the other theRead MoreEssay about The Judicial Branch1512 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand the judicial. Within the contents of this essay, the judicial branch will be examined. The judicial branch of the United States government oversees justice throughout the country by expounding and applying laws by means of a court system.1 This system functions by hearing and determining the legality of such cases.2 Sitting at the top of the United States court system is the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court of the United States encompasses th e federal judiciary, explicitly the judicial branchRead MoreJudicial Review : The Supreme Court1744 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJudicial Review is the power given to the justices of the Supreme Court in which judges have the power to decide and interpret whether a law is unconstitutional or not. Chief Justice John Marshall initiated the Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s right to translate or interpret the constitutional law in 1803 following the case of Marbury v. Madison, which declared the Supreme Courts as the main interpreters of the constitutional law. Marbury v. Madison became one of the most significant Supreme Court decisions in URead MoreThe Case Of Marbury V. Madison854 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdocument in America is the Constitution. More importantly, among the three branches, the judicial branch has one of the most important jobs in the government: to check and review the laws established by the executive branch and legislative branch. Moreover, the judicial branchÃ¢â¬â¢s job is to interp ret and apply the law in the government, but it is also the only branch with the power of Judicial Review, which the judicial branch decide whether a law or action is consistent with fundamental laws such as theRead MoreThe Judicial Branch Of The United States Essay1681 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand the judicial. Within the contents of this essay, the judicial branch will be examined. The judicial branch of the United States government oversees justice throughout the country by expounding and applying laws by means of a court system.1 This system functions by hearing and determining the legality of such cases.2 Sitting at the top of the United States court system is the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court of the United States encompasses the federal judiciary, explicitly the judicial branchRead MoreJudicial Review And The Indian Courts1444 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPolitical Science Essay Monsoon Semester 2014 Submitted by- Pradyumna Soni 214048 JUDICIAL REVIEW AND THE INDIAN COURTS Introduction Judicial Review is basically an aspect of judicial power of the state which is exercised by the courts to determine the validity of a rule of law or an action of any agency of the state. The courts have the power of testing the validity of legislative as well as other governmental action with reference to the provisions of the constitution. TheRead MoreMarbury v. Madison: Judicial Review Essay1032 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMarbury v. Madison the power of judicial review was granted to the Supreme Court in 1801. The Constitution does not give power of judicial review. On Adams last day in office, several government officials upheld the case. Judicial review does not exist in countries that have a centralized or unitary form of government. The elected parliament declares it is the law of the land. Halsema Proposal to Netherlands has taken the initiative to start the process of judicial review. President JohnRead MoreThe Supreme Court s Use Of Judicial Review1108 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s Use of Judicial Review The tool of the Supreme Court of the United States known as judicial review is a device that judges the constitutionality of laws. Judicial review is also a method by which activist judges, special interest groups, and the other branches of government further their own goals. This paper contends that judicial review should be used with great caution by Supreme Court justices as well as its influencers, and perhaps be amended so that it can fully defendRead MoreThe Shortcomings Present Within Justice Gibson s Dissenting Opinion922 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesa sufficient illustration of the inadequacies present within Justice GibsonÃ¢â¬â¢s dissenting opinion in response to Eakin V. Raub, making his critique of Chief Justice John MarshallÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion concerning Marbury v. Madison and its establishment of judicial review deficient in its purpose. Through a brief summarization of the cases, paired with a comparative analysis of both abovementioned opinions, this dissertation will inten d on challenging the commonly held notion of stark confrontation between the