Sunday, March 15, 2020
International Peacekeeping essays Peacekeeping is more than you really think. When you think of peacekeeping, you think of everyone getting along, with no problems. It is more than that, much more. People die to keep the peace. People spend their lives trying to keep the peace. This entire country tries to keep the peace, but yet it is still not all there, and there is nothing we can do except to continue what we have done in the past. The United States is the most powerful country in the world, and we basically decide what goes on in it. With this kind of power, the U.S. can do whatever they need to do to keep the peace and this is what they do, and there is no other country in the world that can interfere with it, or we will crush them. I chose to write this research paper on the most intricate peacekeeping mission that I could find, and where the U.S. military does what I believe they should do. These missions, which began in April 1991, play a very important role in the Middle Eastern and American relations in these countries. The mission is rightfully titled UNIKOM, or United Nations Iraq Kuwait Observation Mission. UNIKOM was established by Security Council resolution 689 and forced the withdrawal of Iraqi forces from the territory of Kuwait. (UNIKOM) At the time, Iraq had invaded Kuwait, and was trying to completely take over the territory, but the U.S, allies to Kuwait, decided to interfere, hoping that this would stop the small war and bring peace to the Middle East. (Encarta) The main reason that this debate has arisen is because Iraq and the Iraqi people are ruled by a brutal dictator that does not show compassion for the people, and that the people of Iraq have not had enough good scene to overthrow him, allowing him to continue his path of terror. When he decided to invade Kuwait his people obeyed. The various groups in the remnants of Yugoslavia did not spend the last decade killing each other with such enthusiasm because they...
Friday, February 28, 2020
FAT file systems - Essay Example File Allocation Tables (FAT) is of huge significance to the users of Compact Flash (CF) because the requirement of FAT type is different for the devices that are optimized with over 2.14 gigabytes (GB) of storage capacity unlike those that require only 2.13 GB. This topic has gained huge importance specifically after the hard diskÃ¢â¬â¢s application into the personal computers. This paper tends to create awareness among the camera users regarding the FAT through a comprehensive discussion of its history. Introduction: The subject of this white paper is the illustration of FAT File Systems. This white paper is directed at creating an understating among the users of camera regarding the File Allocation Tables, which are generally referred to as FAT. Because of the disparity between the need of FAT type among different devices, Compact Flash (CF) users need to be given a thorough understanding of the FAT so that they may be able to make the right choice as per their device. The scope of this white paper is limited to the discussion of history of FAT File Systems along with a brief review of the relation of FAT with the Compact Flash (CF) devices which generate files with sizes up to 5+ mega pixels. This white paper first gives a comprehensive account of the historical background of FAT. This is followed by a review of the use of FAT File Systems in CF. Finally, the findings are concluded in the last section. History of FAT File System: Development of FAT File System: In February, 1976, during his stay at the AlbuquerqueÃ¢â¬â¢s Hilton Hotel spanning five days, a child known as Bill Gates who has gained immense fame for his contributions in the world of computer developed and coded FAT (Gilbert). Ã¢â¬Å"FAT was designed for small disks and simple folder structuresÃ¢â¬ (Microsoft). Replacement of floppy disks with double-sided diskettes: The original Personal Computers made use of floppy disks for carrying the data whose capacity usually used to be 180 kilobyt es. After the floppy disks, use of double-sided diskettes increased. The double-sided diskettes used to be double the capacity of the floppy disks and were up to 5 ? inches in size. The initial DOS developers indicated the relation of sectors to individual files as well as identified the vacant tables by creating tables with a view to organizing the data. As a result of this, the Operating System (DOS) was able to use the limited space on the double-sided diskettes to the maximum limit. There was no more the need of availability of a continuous series of sectors for saving the files. It was possible to break up the data for the files and distribute that everywhere in the double-sided diskette in an increasingly organized and sequenced fashion; a process that is frequently referred to as fragmentation. Nevertheless, it was fortunate in those times to be able to keep the data in one diskette because one would not need to switch the diskettes in and out alternately time and again while the programÃ¢â¬â¢s operation would continue. Selection of table length: There are 768 sectors upon a diskette with a capacity of 360 KB. This required the table to be large enough in order to determine every single sector of the total of 768. There was also the requirement of some room for expansion because the developers were aware of the on-going creation of larger diskettes. Number of possible values permitted by the use of one byte per table did not exceed 512, so that would not practically serve the purpose. On the other hand, two bytes would waste the disk space by permitting 16384 entries. Thus, decision had to be made somewhere in between one and two bytes. So finally, table with the length of 12 bits that were equal to 1.5 bytes were chosen so that the usage of sectors on the first double-sided diskettes could be traced. As a result of this, 4096 possible values were permitted. Such a FAT table was able to deal with storage devices with the capacity as large as 2 GB prov ided that each entry
Wednesday, February 12, 2020
The Second Amendment in 1776 and Now - Essay Example English common law has recognized the significance of proper arms control for a long time. The founding fathers believed that citizens have a right to own arms when working in the militia. Such right ensures the presence of maximum protection and security since people can defend themselves whenever need arises (Cornell 10). The Supreme Court of the US has upheld the amendment in its three decisions in the years 1876, 1886 as well as in 1939. Therefore, the founding fathers advocated for collective rights interpretation whereby people were allowed to own arms only when in a group such as the militia but not individuals. The founding fathers had in mind the dangers of permitting individual citizens to purchase and own guns in the society. According to them, such permission would promote weapon related violence, and thereby make the society an unsafe place to live in. This collective right interpretation had prevailed in America for over a century, and therefore, it had been recognized and used in three Supreme Court rulings (Cornell 15). However, this meaning remained no-contentious until in 1960 when an additional individual right to bear arms for self-defense was recognized. Therefore, the assertion of the individual right has made Americans to currently consider that the Second Amendment warrants their right to own a gun (Charles 27). The individual rights model has either undercut or blocked passage of laws that regulate purchase and use of guns over the last twenty years. For instance, the assault weapons prohibition of 1994 was permitted to expire after ten years due to intense pressure from gun rights activists and organizations (Doherty 31). Even though the gunÃ¢â¬â¢s lobby persistence that the long common laws and traditions have existed supporting an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s right to own and use weapons, the English law has regulated guns from the 14th century (Gonzales 45). This is because of the existence of Game Laws that restricted ownership of weapons only to the wealthy people who had substantial income and owned huge lands (Baron 3). Therefore, the middle class as well as peasants were not permitted to own or use weapons such as guns. Currently, gun lobbyists argue that the English Bill of Rights presented to the monarchs by the House of Commons in 1689 guaranteed everyone to own and use weapons (Anderson and Horwitz 35). However, the law restricted the ownership to Protestants who were of the right social class. Further, the Bill of Rights acknowledged the need for the law to regulate weapons. In this regard, the Bill of Rights does not recognize ownership and use of weapons among the middle class as well as the common citizens (Labunski 53). The privilege to possess and use weaponsÃ¢â¬âmore so, gunsÃ¢â¬âwas left to the wealthy people in the society. In Britain, the law on gun control has been maintained while in the US, there has been growing resistance to regulation of possession and use of guns. The most recent case occurred in March 2007, when the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia recognized the individual rights model (Smith 36). It decided that the ban on handguns since 1976 in Washington D.C. has been in violation of the Second Amendment that guarantees the right of an individual to own and use guns. According to the
Friday, January 31, 2020
Case Analysis for North American Warehouse Clubs Essay The competitive environment has changed drastically since the BSG case was originally written. The United States (US) continues to decline in the market as opposed to several years ago, but due to certain qualities it continues to remain very competitive in the market. One factor which gives the US a competitive edge is innovation. US companies are highly sophisticated and innovative. For the purposes of this analysis, the focus will be on innovation. Modern technology with information systems and applications with state of the art information and communication technologies are leading factors in the success of businesses today. Many newer businesses use e-technologies as a tool that not only improves efficiency, but gives them the competitive edge against those companies which are still running operations with outdated technology. Companies who have been around for decades are forced to implement new systems depending on their business needs. Changing technology is an initiative that is generally high cost, taking time to implement. There are numerous options available today that if the implementation of a new system is not strategically planned it could ultimately place a business in a financial deficit forcing businesses to reduce operations and sometimes shut down. It is important for businesses to invest in research and development (RD) when deciding to develop new processes to maintain a competitive edge. Looking at the case, it is apparent that Costco was the leader in modern technology compared to the other two competitors. Costco began to grow its business with two websites in 2004 in the US and in Canada. CostcoÃ¢â¬â¢s e-commerce sales more than tripled over several years, reaching sales of over $1.2B in 2007. BJÃ¢â¬â¢s began upgrading technology in 2007 which was fully implemented in 2009. Although net sales increased from $8,792M to $9,802M during the implementation years, net sales have seized to take an impressive incline with the new system. Net sales only increased $152M from 2009 to 2010. The case did not report on any innovations related to technology for SamÃ¢â¬â¢s Club. Some of the problems SamÃ¢â¬â¢s Club faces compared to the other competitors can be directed at the location of warehouses, their competition with Wal-Mart and their low scale target market. One way to improve would be to focus on their target market by offering upscale merchandise which will target upscale clientele. SamÃ¢â¬â¢s Club could purchase BJÃ¢â¬â¢s which already sells high quality brand merchandise. Merging with this competitor would tighten the market share even more. Focusing on members through this type of merchandising strategy will increase profitability. Another way to improve would be to reduce the amounts of international imports and focus on using American made products. Reducing import/export costs overall will increase revenue growth and financial performance. References World Economic Forum. 2012. The Global Competitiveness Report 2012-2013. Geneva: World Economic Forum. Available at www3.weforum.org//WEF_GlobalCompetitivenessReport_2012-13 Wall Street Journal. SamÃ¢â¬â¢s Club CEO Launches Charge on Rivals, Updated October 31, 2012, 1:44 p.m. ET http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203335504578089131653808580.html By SHELLY BANJO version of this article appeared October 31, 2012, on page B7 in the U.S. edition of The Wall Street Journal, with the headline: Sams Club CEO Launches Charge on Rivals. http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-505123_162-43940823/sams-clubs-risky-move-into-sma
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Paintings in Rome In 211 BC the great general M. Claudius Marcellus returned to Rome after his decisive defeat of Syracuse. With him came a vast booty of Hellenistic artifacts. Remaining outside the sacred precincts of Rome, he supplicated the Senate for the purification and glory of a triumphal procession, realizing that they would both make a visual impression in his triumph and also be an ornament for the city." He opened his triumph impressively with an allegorical painting of Syracuse made prisoner. Paintings carried in triumphal processions, specifically commissioned to commemorate victorious military campaigns, not only added immensely to the celebratory nature of the rite, they also increased its sociopolitical power. Roman triumphal painting also served to acquaint Romans with novel artistic conventions, previously foreign to their experience. Although none of the paintings commissioned by victorious Roman generals to decorate their triumphal processions survives, the testimonial provide crucial alternate evidence to determine their role in shaping Roman political and artistic culture in the Republican period. During the Republic, Roman paintings with historical themes commemorated the empire's expansion: for example, the conquests of Carthage in 201 BC, Sardinia in 174 BC, and Macedonian in 168 BC Subjects included, at one end of the spectrum, pared-down iconic personifications and, at the other end, full-fledged battle scenes in landscape settings. Roman historical paintings not only secured the private memories of participants in actual events; they also served a didactic and propagandistic function in the public sphere of Roman political and religious institutions. The Roman governing class commissioned historical paintings to inform a specifically Roman audience of its achievements, to educate that audience about its policies, and thus to persuade that audience to adopt its views and follow a particular course of action. It used historical paintings to implement ideology. Ancient Rome inherited arguments, already old, for the superiority of painting over any other form of communicatio n to affect and manipulate an audience. Further, Romans embraced the idea that historical painting was at its most effective when it became the embodiment of what it represented, or, to use the terms preferred by Freedberg, when the sign becomes the living embodiment of what it signifies. (Ancient authors, for example, relish anecdotes describing portraits that profoundly affected spectators long after the death of their subjects.) Toward that end, Roman patrons became increasingly sophisticated about representational strategies and throughout the course of the Republic procured the most commanding examples possible.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Ecriture feminine, literally Ã¢â¬Å"women's writing,Ã¢â¬ Ã more closely, the writing of the female body and female disparity in language and text,Ã is a strain ofÃ feminist literary theory that originated in FranceÃ in the early 1970s and included foundational theorists such asÃ Helene Cixous,Ã Monique Wittig,Ã Luce Irigaray,Ã Chantal Chawaf,Ã andÃ Julia Kristeva,Ã and also other writers like psychoanalytical theoristÃ Bracha Ettinger,Ã who joined this field in the early 1990s. Ã Generally, French feminists tended to focus their attention on language, analyzing the ways in which meaning is produced. They concluded that language as we commonly think of it is a decidedly male realm, which therefore only represents a world from the male point of view.  Nonetheless, the French women's movement developed in much the same way as the feminist movements elsewhere in Europe or in the United States: French women participated in consciousness-raising groups; demonstrated in the streets on theÃ 8th of March; fought hard for women's right to choose whether to have children; raised the issue of violence against women; and struggled to change public opinion on issues concerning women and women's rights. The fact that the very first meeting of a handful of would-be feminist activists in 1970 only managed to launch an acrimonious theoretical debate, would seem to mark the situation as typically Ã¢â¬ËFrench' in its apparent insistence on the primacy of theory over politics.  Helene CixousÃ first coinedÃ ecriture feminineÃ in her essay, Ã¢â¬Å"The Laugh of the MedusaÃ¢â¬ (1975), where she asserts Ã¢â¬Å"Woman must write her self: must write about women and bring women to writing, from which they have been driven away as violently as from their bodiesÃ¢â¬ because their sexual pleasure has been repressed and denied expression. Inspired by Cixous' essay, a recent book titledLaughing with MedusaÃ (2006) analyzes the collective work of Julia Kristeva, Luce Irigaray, Bracha Ettinger and Helene Cixous. Ã These writers are as a whole referred to by Anglophones as Ã¢â¬Å"the French feminists,Ã¢â¬ though Mary Klages, Associate Professor in the English Department at the University of Colorado at Boulder, has pointed out that Ã¢â¬Å"poststructuralist theoretical feministsÃ¢â¬ would be a more accurate term. Ã Madeleine Gagnon is a more recent proponent. And since the aforementioned 1975 when Cixous also founded women's studies at Vincennes, she has been as a spokeswoman for the group Psychanalyse et politique and a prolific writer of texts for their publishing house, des femmes. And when asked of her own writing she says, Ã¢â¬Å"Je suis la ou ca parleÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"I am there where it/id/the female unconscious speaks. Ã¢â¬Å")Ã  American feminist critic and writerÃ Elaine ShowalterÃ defines this movement as Ã¢â¬Å"the inscription of the feminine body and female difference in language and text. Ã Ecriture feminine places experience before language, and privileges non-linear, cyclical writing that evades Ã¢â¬Å"the discourse that regulates theÃ phallocentricÃ system. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã Because language is not a neutral medium, the argument can be made that it functions as an instrument of patriarchal expression. Peter Barry writes that Ã¢â¬Å"the female writer is seen as suffering the handicap of having to use a mediu m (prose writing) which is essentially a male instrument fashioned for male purposesÃ¢â¬ . 18]Ã Ecriture feminine thus exists as an antithesis of masculine writing, or as a means of escape for women,although the phallogocentric argument itself has been criticised by W. A. Borody as misrepresenting the history of philosophies of Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢indeterminatenessÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ in Western culture. Borody claims that theÃ¢â¬Ëblack and whiteÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢view that the masculine=determinateness and the feminine=indeterminateness contains a degree of cultural and historical validity, but not when it is deployed to self-replicate a similar form of gender-othering it originally sought to overcome. 19]Ã In the words of Rosemarie Tong, Ã¢â¬Å"Cixous challenged women to write themselves out of the world men constructed for women. She urged women to put themselves-the unthinkable/unthought-into words. Ã¢â¬  Almost everything is yet to be written by women about femininity: about their sexuality, that is, its infinite and mobile complexity; about their eroticization, sudden turn-ons of a certain minuscule-immense area of their bodies; not about destiny, but about the adventure of such and such a drive, about trips, crossings, trudges, abrupt and gradual awakenings, discoveries of a zone at once timorous and soon to be forthright. 14] With regard to phallocentric writing, Tong explains that Ã¢â¬Å"male sexuality, which centers on what Cixous called the Ã¢â¬Å"big dickÃ¢â¬ , is ultimately boring in its pointedness and singularity. Like male sexuality, masculine writing, which Cixous usually termed phallogocentric writing, is also ultimately boringÃ¢â¬ and furthermore, that Ã¢â¬Å"stamped with the official seal of social approval, masculine writing is too weighted down to move or changeÃ¢â¬ . 20] Write, let no one hold you back, let nothing stop you: not man; not the imbecilic capitalist machinery, in which the publishing houses are the crafty, obsequiou s relayers of imperatives handed down by an economy that works against us and off our backs; notÃ yourself. Smug-faced readers, managing editors, and big bosses don't like the true texts of women- female-sexed texts. That kind scares them.  For Cixous, ecriture feminine is not only a possibility for female writers; rather, she believes it can be (and has been) employed by male authors such asÃ James Joyce. Some have found this idea difficult to reconcile with CixousÃ¢â¬â¢ definition of ecriture feminine (often termed Ã¢â¬Ëwhite inkÃ¢â¬â¢) because of the many references she makes to the female body (Ã¢â¬Å"There is always in her at least a little of that good motherÃ¢â¬â¢s milk. She writes in white inkÃ¢â¬ ) when characterizing the essence of ecriture feminine and explaining its origin. This notion raises problems for some theorists: Ã¢â¬Å"Ecriture feminine, then, is by its nature transgressive, rule-transcending, intoxicated, but it is clear that the notion as put forward by Cixous raises many problems. The realm of the body, for instance, is seen as somehow immune to social and gender condition and able to issue forth a pure essence of the feminine. Such essentialism is difficult to square with feminism which emphasizes femininity as a social constructionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬  For Luce Irigaray, women's sexual pleasureÃ jouissanceÃ cannot be expressed by the dominant, ordered, Ã¢â¬Å"logical,Ã¢â¬ masculine language because according to Kristeva, feminine language is derived from the pre-oedipal period of fusion between mother and child. Associated with the maternal, feminine language is not only a threat to culture, which is patriarchal, but also a medium through which women may be creative in new ways. Irigaray expressed this connection between women's sexuality and women's language through the following analogy: women'sÃ jouissanceÃ is more multiple than men's unitary, phallic pleasure becauseÃ  Ã¢â¬Å"woman has sex organs just about everywhereÃ¢â¬ ¦ feminine language is more diffusive than its Ã¢â¬Ëmasculine counterpart'. That is undoubtedly the reasonÃ¢â¬ ¦ her languageÃ¢â¬ ¦ goes off in all directions andÃ¢â¬ ¦ e is unable to discern the coherence. Ã¢â¬ Ã  Irigaray and Cixous also go on to emphasize that women, historically limited to being sexual objects for men (virgins or prostitutes, wives or mothers), have been prevented from expressing their sexuality in itself or for themselves. If they can do this, and if they can speak about it in the new languages it calls for, they will establ ish a point of view (a site of difference) from which phallogocentric concepts and controls can be seen through and taken apart, not only in theory, but also in practice. 26] Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Notes 1. ^Ã Baldick, Chris. Oxford Concise Dictionary of Literary Terms. OUP, 1990. 65. 2. ^Ã Showalter, Elaine. Critical Inquiry, Vol. 8, No. 2, Writing and Sexual Difference, (Winter, 1981), pp. 179-205. Published by: The University of Chicago Press. http://www. jstor. org/stable/1343159 3. ^Ã Irigaray, Luce,Ã Speculum of the Other Woman, Cornell University Press, 1985 4. ^Ã Cesbron, Georges, Ã¢â¬ Ecritures au feminin. Propositions de lecture pour quatre livres de femmesÃ¢â¬ in Degre Second, juillet 1980: 95-119 5. Ã Mistacco, Vicki, Ã¢â¬Å"Chantal Chawaf,Ã¢â¬ in Les femmes et la tradition litteraire Ã¢â¬â Anthologie du Moyen Age a nos jours; Seconde p artie: XIXe-XXIe siecles, Yale Press, 2006, 327-343 6. ^Ã Kristeva, JuliaÃ Revolution in Poetic Language, Columbia University Press, 1984 7. ^Ã Griselda Pollock, Ã¢â¬Å"To Inscribe in the Feminine: A Kristevan Impossibility? Or Femininity, Melancholy and Sublimation. Ã¢â¬ Ã Parallax, n. 8, [Vol. 4(3)], 1998. 81-117. 8. ^Ã Ettinger, Bracha,Ã Matrix . Halal(a) Ã¢â¬â Lapsus. Notes on Painting, 1985-1992. MOMA, Oxford, 1993. (ISBN 0-905836-81-2). Reprinted in:Ã Artworking 1985-1999. Edited by Piet Coessens. Ghent-Amsterdam: Ludion / Brussels: Palais des Beaux-Arts, 2000. (ISBN 90-5544-283-6) 9. ^Ã Ettinger, Bracha,Ã The Matrixial BorderspaceÃ (essays 1994-1999), Minnesota University Press, 2006 10. ^Ã Pollock, Griselda, Ã¢â¬Å"Does Art Think? Ã¢â¬Å", in:Ã Art and ThoughtÃ Blackwell, 2003 11. ^Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Murfin, Ross C. Ã¢â¬ Ã http://www. ux1. eiu. edu/~rlbeebe/what_is_feminist_criticism. pdf 12. ^Ã Moi, Toril, ed. French Feminist Thought. Basil Blac kwell Ltd, 1987. (ISBN 0-631-14972-4) 13. Ã Zajko, Vanda and Leonard, Miriam,Ã Laughing with Medusa. Oxford University Press, 2006 14. ^Ã aÃ bÃ Klages, Mary. Ã¢â¬Å"Helene Cixous: The Laugh of the Medusa. Ã¢â¬ 15. ^Ã Jones, Ann Rosalind. Feminist Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2 (Summer, 1981), pp. 247-263. Published by: Feminist Studies, Inc. http://www. jstor. org/stable/3177523 16. ^Ã Showalter, Elaine. Ã¢â¬Å"Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness. Ã¢â¬ Ã The New Feminist Criticism: essays on women, literature, and theory. Elaine Showalter, ed. London: Virago, 1986. 249. 17. ^Ã Cixous, Helene. Ã¢â¬Å"The Laugh of the Medusa. Ã¢â¬ Ã New French Feminisms. Elaine Marks and Isabelle de Courtivron, eds. New York: Schocken, 1981. 253. 18. ^Ã Barry, Peter. Beginning TheoryÃ : An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. New York: Manchester UP, 2002. 126 19. ^Ã Wayne A. Borody (1998) pp. 3, 5 Figuring the Phallogocentric Argument with Respect to the Classical Greek Philosophical Tradition Nebula: A Netzine of the Arts and Science, Vol. 13 (pp. 1-27) (http://kenstange. com/nebula/feat013/feat013. html) . 20. ^Ã aÃ bÃ Tong, Rosemarie Putnam. Feminist ThoughtÃ : A More Comprehensive Introduction. New York: Westview P, 2008. 276. 1. ^Ã Helene Cixous, Summer 1976. 22. ^Ã Klages, Mary. Ã¢â¬Å"Helene Cixous: Ã¢â¬ËThe Laugh of the Medusa. 23. ^Ã Barry, Peter. Beginning TheoryÃ : An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. New York: Manchester UP, 2002. 128. 24. ^Ã Murfin, Ross C. http://www. ux1. eiu. edu/~rlbeebe/what_is_feminist_criticism. pdf 25. ^Ã Irigaray, Luce. This Sex. 26. ^Ã Jones, Ann Rosalind. Fem inist Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2 (Summer, 1981), pp. 247-263. Published by: Feminist Studies, Inc. http://www. jstor. org/stable/3177523. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- External links
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
The late 1700s and early 1800s were a time full of expansion and innovation in the United States of America. The country was getting bigger, both in population and in geographic size, and the government was getting more powerful as well. This was because of the new Constitution that was put into place in 1787 that replaced the Articles of Confederation and took most of the power away from the individual states and gave it to the federal government. When the Constitution was ratified, both Brutus (believed to be Robert Yates), and Alexander Hamilton were in a debate over the potential power of the federal government, and more specifically, the power of the Supreme Court in Federalist 78 and BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢ eleventh and twelfth letters. AlexanderÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This type of longevity in office ensures that the judges do not face any type of political pressure by either the government of the people themselves. It also prevents the other two branches of government from havi ng any type of influence on them. This works both ways, however. The Judiciary relies on the other two branches to enforce its decision. It has no power to do so by itself. Hamilton states it has no influence over either the sword or the purse...It may truly be said to have neither FORCE nor WILL, but merely judgment. This reinforces the idea that the judiciary is very weak in comparison to the other branches. The legislative branch controls the money, or Ã¢â¬Å"the purseÃ¢â¬ , and the executive contains the military, or Ã¢â¬Å"the swordÃ¢â¬ . The judicial branch also poses no threats to any political rights. Federalist 78 outright protects the idea of judicial review, one of the most controversial topics. Hamilton claims that the court not only has the right, but the duty to decide when acts of Congress are constitutional or unconstitutional and to base their decision firmly off the Constitution whenever there are any type of conflicts. He regarded this as a protection against manipulation by Congress, which was a far more serious concern. Fifteen years after the publishing of BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢ letters and Federalist 78, the landmark case Marbury v. Madison was broughtShow MoreRelatedThe Power Of Judicial Review Essay1805 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe power of judicial review was established by the Supreme Court in the 1803 case Marbury v. Madison and gives the judicial branch the ability to decide the constitutionality of a law or Executive action. Judicial review has no constitutional grounds, meaning that the Supreme Court essentially created its own power: the power to interpret the constitution. Since then, the balance between judicial activism and judicial restraint has varied greatly from era to era. Judicial restraint occurs when justicesRead MoreSupremacy Judicial Review : The Power Of The Other Branches Of Government856 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSupremacy Judicial Review Among the three branches of government, the branch that had received the least amount of attention was the Judiciary. Compared to the other two branches, the Judiciary is rarely discussed in great detail. Federalists like Alexander Hamilton argue that this is because the Judicial branch has significantly the least amount of power. However, Brutus of the Anti-Federalist party argues that the JudiciaryÃ¢â¬â¢s power of constitutional review can impact the power of the other theRead MoreEssay about The Judicial Branch1512 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand the judicial. Within the contents of this essay, the judicial branch will be examined. 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The judicial branch of the United States government oversees justice throughout the country by expounding and applying laws by means of a court system.1 This system functions by hearing and determining the legality of such cases.2 Sitting at the top of the United States court system is the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court of the United States encompasses the federal judiciary, explicitly the judicial branchRead MoreJudicial Review And The Indian Courts1444 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPolitical Science Essay Monsoon Semester 2014 Submitted by- Pradyumna Soni 214048 JUDICIAL REVIEW AND THE INDIAN COURTS Introduction Judicial Review is basically an aspect of judicial power of the state which is exercised by the courts to determine the validity of a rule of law or an action of any agency of the state. The courts have the power of testing the validity of legislative as well as other governmental action with reference to the provisions of the constitution. TheRead MoreMarbury v. Madison: Judicial Review Essay1032 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMarbury v. Madison the power of judicial review was granted to the Supreme Court in 1801. The Constitution does not give power of judicial review. On Adams last day in office, several government officials upheld the case. Judicial review does not exist in countries that have a centralized or unitary form of government. The elected parliament declares it is the law of the land. Halsema Proposal to Netherlands has taken the initiative to start the process of judicial review. President JohnRead MoreThe Supreme Court s Use Of Judicial Review1108 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s Use of Judicial Review The tool of the Supreme Court of the United States known as judicial review is a device that judges the constitutionality of laws. Judicial review is also a method by which activist judges, special interest groups, and the other branches of government further their own goals. This paper contends that judicial review should be used with great caution by Supreme Court justices as well as its influencers, and perhaps be amended so that it can fully defendRead MoreThe Shortcomings Present Within Justice Gibson s Dissenting Opinion922 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesa sufficient illustration of the inadequacies present within Justice GibsonÃ¢â¬â¢s dissenting opinion in response to Eakin V. Raub, making his critique of Chief Justice John MarshallÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion concerning Marbury v. Madison and its establishment of judicial review deficient in its purpose. Through a brief summarization of the cases, paired with a comparative analysis of both abovementioned opinions, this dissertation will inten d on challenging the commonly held notion of stark confrontation between the