Thursday, November 28, 2019
Beatrice and Catherine play Paper Beatrice is a woman who often likes to talk about how shes feeling and shows her anxiety to Eddie openly, Im just telling you I done what you want! Shes constantly standing by Eddie, even though she knows hes done a terrible thing by calling in the authorities. Through it all Eddie eventually comes back to Beatrice as he dies in her arms: My B.!Ã Rodolpho is an American enthusiast; hence the singing of Paper Doll (an American song) and the spending of money on fashionable clothes and records, of which Eddie disapproves. Rodolphos constant smiling and affection makes the audience begin to like him, and feel sympathy for him. When Marco and Rodolpho arrive in Act One, Eddie takes an instant dislike to Rodolpho because of the obvious attraction between Catherine and Rodolpho. The stage direction He is coming more and more to address Marco only shows that Rodolpho has started to irritate Eddie, and he doesnt like having an unmarried man in his house. The attraction between Rodolpho and Catherine becomes most evident to Eddie in the last two lines of this part of the act, when Catherine says to Rodolpho, you like sugar? and he replies, Sugar? Yes! I like sugar very much!. Taken literally, Catherine is in fact offering Rodolpho sugar for his coffee, but there is also a possibility of a hidden meaning. By this time Eddie has become insanely jealous, because giving someone sugar can also means giving someone some love. 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He has difficulty speaking English which also adds to his belief in actions speaking louder than words. Marco came to the U.S.A out of love for his family and clearly misses them, and also feels a responsibility for Rodolpho, as well as the community. When Eddie attempts a joke about the surprises awaiting men in Italy after working in the U.S.A for many years, Marco corrects him and sees nothing funny in the suggestion. In the first act when Marco raises the chair like a weapon to threaten Eddie, it allows him to express an idea wish he would not wish to put into words. At first it is Rodolpho who Eddie wants to eliminate, but after Marco spits in his face and announces I accuse that one when Eddies betrays them and calls the authorities, Eddies war is with the elder brother. In effect, a challenge has been issued by Marco, Marcos got my name. and contradicting Marco is Eddies only way of trying to recover his lost name. Marco feels very strongly about family values and tells Alfieri that in his home country Eddie would already be dead for what he has done, and feels even more strongly than Eddie does the values which Eddie expresses in telling the story of Vinnie Bolzano, the stool pigeon. Being the 1940s, Catherine and Beatrice are often restricted by Eddie as head of the household. Catherine feels obliged to obey him because he has been like a father to her, and doesnt think its right if he does not agree with her marriage to Rodolpho. Her loving respectful attitude towards him slowly dissolves and turns to hate in Act Two, where she calls him a rat. Beatrice on the other hand remains devoted to Eddie through the whole play, and stands by him even when she knows Eddie has done something awful. Even when Eddie demeans her, by saying that she is his wife and should obey him, she still stands by him. This is also shown by the way she reacts when she is told that she cant go to Catherines wedding or she no longer lives in the same household. Another example of Eddie being a man of his time is in Act Two where he returns home after ringing the immigration bureau. He is really paranoid and anxious, so he starts to take it out on Beatrice. I dont like the way you talk to me, Beatrice and I want my respect Eddie, as a man of his time, is also unable to express his emotions and keeps them locked inside to show his masculinity. Eddie: Pause, he cant speak, then I cant, I cant talk about it. He is at war with his inner self because he cant admit, even to himself, that he likes Catherine and is in denial and disgusted at himself. His inability to express his emotions is an act of defence, to avoid showing his weakness and insecurities. The tension in A View from the Bridge rises and drops deliberately, the high moments of tension being: the chair scene; the kiss scene; Marco spitting in Eddies face; and the fight at the end. The chair scene raises the audiences tension because it is surprising. Not much is known about Marco, he remains mysterious throughout the first Act. When he raises the chair as a weapon, it shocks the audience and at the same time gives a very slight insight into Marcos protective personality. In effect, it makes the audience curious as well as slightly worried because it gives a sense of foreboding. With the audience still tense, the second act opens with a series of events that relies on stage action, as a drunken Eddie kisses both Catherine and Rodolpho. He kisses Catherine to show her how a real man kisses and kisses Rodolpho to show Catherine that he enjoys it, to humiliate him and to show that his failure to resist is significant. By now Eddie will have lost the audiences sympathy, and in 1955 when the play was first performed, the double kiss would have been extremely shocking.Ã Later during Act Two while being dragged out by the immigration officers, Marco spits in Eddies face. Then outside the apartment in front of all the neighbours, Marco reveals that it was Eddie who called the immigration bureau and accuses him by screaming, That one! He killed my children! It is at this point when Marco steals Eddies name. The real climax of the play is when Marco is coming to punish Eddie, while Eddie, in return, is demanding his name back. As said before Marco thinks it is dishonourable to let Eddie live but has given his word not to kill him. When Eddie pulls out a knife, Marco can see justice done. Eddie literally dies by his own hand which is holding the knife, but has also metaphorically destroyed himself over the whole course of the play. The death of Eddie is not particularly shocking, and gives the audience time to recover and reflect what has just happened. The anticipation of the fight is the major climax. It could be described like a showdown on a western. Miller uses a range of dramatic devices to increase the tension in the play. The use of Italian and Sicilian immigrants enables Miller to make them more or less inarticulate in English. Alfieri is the only educated speaker of English and for this reason can explain Eddies actions to us. Eddie uses a naturalistic Brooklyn slang e.g. quicker for more quickly. If the dialect was different, or more articulate it wouldnt have had the same gritty realistic effect. Action and stage directions are very important in this play, because of Eddies and Marcos limitations as speakers, and purely because some matters cannot be discussed and are shown by gestures instead. The stage directions define each character. At high moments of tension or climaxes Miller often adds in very striking action. For example the climax of Act One, when Eddie tries to humiliate Rodolpho by teaching him to box, while Macro silently watched what was happening. As Eddie throws a punch which staggers Rodolpho, Marco shows the danger Eddie is inviting by threatening Rodolpho, by lifting the chair as a weapon. The structure of the play is quite simple. Miller used the two acts to mark a division in Eddies story, and within these acts are scenes, which are split by Alfieris talks/monologues and are narrated in a linear fashion but with gaps in time. The lighting is used theatrically, a significant use being the phone booth, which glows brighter and brighter signalling Eddies realisation then determination to call the immigration bureau. The area in use is lighted if needed, other wise it is dark. The blackouts give a moment of reflection, leaving the audience to dwell on the events of the play. It is said that Miller wanted to make A View from the Bridge a modern equivalent of a Greek tragedy, which has: a central character that has a fatal flaw, e.g. Eddie with his love for Catherine, and therefore his jealousy and a Greek chorus. The chorus was a group of people who watched the play, commented on it and addressed the audience directly. In A View from the Bridge Alfieri is the equivalent to the chorus, and after Eddie, is probably the most important role in the play. Alfieri moves time on, directs the audience in their thoughts and feelings, anticipates what will happen and establishes character, He was a good a man as he had to be. His words are constantly full of foreboding, Another lawyer sat there as powerless as I and watched it run its bloody course but he doesnt try to alter the course. Alfieri is at battle with himself, not knowing how involved he should get. He repeatedly tells Eddie not to get involved, to let Catherine go. As Eddie contemplates betrayal, Alfieri reads his mind and warns him: You wont have a friend in the worldput it out of your mind.Ã At the end of a scene, as the light goes up on Alfieri, the audience is challenged to make a judgement.Ã A View from the Bridge is not a pleasant play nor is it meant to be. I personally enjoyed it because it was gripping, and there are subtle metaphors scattered throughout. The issues represented still apply to this day, trust being tested now more than ever. It leaves philosophical and moral questions lingering in our mind, such as who is responsible for Eddies death? It could be argued that Beatrice and Catherine played a part to Eddies downfall, however I would disagree. They couldnt be blamed for Eddies attraction and lust for Catherine, because preventing love is impossible. A View from the Bridge couldnt end any other way, if Eddie had not died, he would have suffered humiliation and shame for the rest of his life, which would probably lead to suicide, death being inevitable. Would I be able to cope in his position and resist that act of desperation? In all honesty, I dont think I could, its just a matter of time until the wall of denial would crumble, eventually giving in to acceptance and desperation. A View from the Bridge is a well written play; it appeals to our hearts, but makes us think with our heads.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
When King Henry VII dissolved the Catholic Church and made the Church of England rendering the Pope powerless in all English affairs (Williams, 4), some people, non-conformists, were not happy. They were persecuted for practicing their religion, so when they found a chance to leave, they did. This first group of people had been living in self-exile in Leyden, Holland. They were known by 3 different names, their leader William Bradford called them Pilgrims, those who held them in contempt called them Brownists, and to King James and his court they were known as Separatists (Williams, 48). They were forced to leave England, because their complete and unchanging belief that religion should be completely free from government. They became tired of Holland, because of their poor worship of the Sabbath, and were ready to find a new place to live, but only 35 were brave enough to go to the America, they were joined by 66 people from London. Their desired destination is not known, but they ended up landing at Cape Cod. After some exploring surrounding land the Pilgrims chose Plymouth Rock as their permanent settlement (Williams, 52). Although the first year almost half of the population died, by 1632, 11 years after the beginning their population was up to 500. By the end in 1691 the population was no more than eight thousand scattered in several towns (Williams, 53). Puritans made many settlements and had trade routes in between the cities. Inside of the cities life was organized and run very strictly. The church was the government and controlled everything under strict rule. They believed punishment for everything should be death or shame. If you had beliefs other than what the church wanted you to have you would be thrown in jail, or banished. The church felt fear of God was the way to worship, and also felt that fear was the best way to run a community. Puritans, like all Protestants, believed in predestination; God, they declared, ha... Free Essays on Puritans In Early America Free Essays on Puritans In Early America When King Henry VII dissolved the Catholic Church and made the Church of England rendering the Pope powerless in all English affairs (Williams, 4), some people, non-conformists, were not happy. They were persecuted for practicing their religion, so when they found a chance to leave, they did. This first group of people had been living in self-exile in Leyden, Holland. They were known by 3 different names, their leader William Bradford called them Pilgrims, those who held them in contempt called them Brownists, and to King James and his court they were known as Separatists (Williams, 48). They were forced to leave England, because their complete and unchanging belief that religion should be completely free from government. They became tired of Holland, because of their poor worship of the Sabbath, and were ready to find a new place to live, but only 35 were brave enough to go to the America, they were joined by 66 people from London. Their desired destination is not known, but they ended up landing at Cape Cod. After some exploring surrounding land the Pilgrims chose Plymouth Rock as their permanent settlement (Williams, 52). Although the first year almost half of the population died, by 1632, 11 years after the beginning their population was up to 500. By the end in 1691 the population was no more than eight thousand scattered in several towns (Williams, 53). Puritans made many settlements and had trade routes in between the cities. Inside of the cities life was organized and run very strictly. The church was the government and controlled everything under strict rule. They believed punishment for everything should be death or shame. If you had beliefs other than what the church wanted you to have you would be thrown in jail, or banished. The church felt fear of God was the way to worship, and also felt that fear was the best way to run a community. Puritans, like all Protestants, believed in predestination; God, they declared, ha...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Social Security and the Downfalls of Early Retirement - Essay Example As a means of providing a certain level of financial assistance to those who have entered the later years of their live, US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, in one of his acts as commander-in-chief, enacted a social help doctrine that would be commonly known as Social Security. The importance of Social Security is not lost among people. The program in which benefactors are able to received a certain amount of financial help each month after a certain age which is supposed to be comparable to the amount of earnings that the person would have been into the system over the lifetime in which they were working. As many of the "baby boomer" generation begin their approach to retirement, there is a great concern amongst many people as to how the Social Security system will ultimately handle the influx of new retirees as they filter in. Some wish to retire early, while others are determined to maintain their status as working individuals to the median age of retirement, or the common age in which many people choose to not work anymore. As it stands, the current health of the Social Security system is at a point in which there is great concern when it comes to the amount of beneficiaries there will be in the near future. With such being the case, the level in which the system can support both current, as well as future retirees, is something that has many answers to it and great implications for the ultimate outcome. A question for a great many people is to whether or not they are able to retire early and as such draw upon their benefits. The following can become very true; Social Security for early retirement is a complicated issue. Since many countries cannot offer significant financial support for retirement, this indicates that a person should save money early to be prepared and become financially secured as he or she retires from work. Contrary to popular belief, the Social Security never intended to be thee only source of income for retired people. For this reason, weighing the pros and cons of social security for early retirement is important to understand your rights, benefits and limitations so you could invest in other pension plans to support your retirement. Over fifty years ago, life expectancy of a person who started earning income around 20 years old was at age 68. Today, the life expectancy of that same 20-year-old who started earning is at around age 78, which continues to rise. For this reason, the earlier you save money for retirement, the greater benefits you will receive once you retire. ("Understanding", p.1). To decide how best to go about retiring, whether it being to do so early or at the age in which is considered to be common, an important thing to keep in mind is to observe and consider whether or not the Social Security system would be solvent enough to provide enough benefits to help beneficiaries in their later years. Essentially, to retire early means a less amount of benefits that will be available at the end of the retiree's life, with those benefits having been used to care for the person when they sought to leave the work